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Period when: Ruled by a king and senate (patricians)
Period when: ruled by two consuls, senate (patricians), plebian council (plebs), and other councils.
Period when: ruled by an emperor; senate and councils become less influential
The son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite, was commanded by the gods to take a group (Aeneids) and flee Troy to a new country (Rome).
7 kings (Latin, Etruscan, Sabine)
Oath of the Horatii (669 B.C.)
The last monarch, Superbus, was ousted by the Romans and led the Etruscans in an attack against the Romans.
Horatio at the bridge (505 B.C.)
Held off Etruscans while Roman soldiers retreated.
Crippled from a spear wound but lived to serve as a model of bravery
Where Senate (who were patricians) elected the monarch,now they elected two consuls.
In 495 Rome was at war and the plebian soldiers refused to fight unless given the right to elect their own officials
Patricians agreed to give them a right of veto and the plebian Tribunes were started.
In fourth century B.C. the plebeian council was given the right to enact laws.
Ruled by a senate and the people.
SPQR = Senate and the people of Rome
How was the Roman government similar to the government in the United States?
- Balance of power
- Senate and House of Representatives
- Consul (= President)
- Tribune (veto power and local govt.)
- Courts (independent)
- Military power (under consuls)
- Censor (?)
What historic event caused the Romans to replace the phalanx by the more flexible Roman Legion?
In 390 B.C. the Romans were humiliated when Rome was sacked by the Celtic Gauls
Front line soldiers who were the youngest & least reliable
Second line men in their prime ages (late twenties to early thirties).
Third line veteran soldiers used only in extreme situations.
What were two forms of Roman military discipline?
- Death for individual insubordination
- Decimation for cowardice
How did the Roman military have a Realistic view of power and weakness?
- set up 3 re-deployment plans in case the army was forced to retreat
- This meant that anyone fighting the Romans would have to defeat them three times
City was 3x as large as Rome and more impressive. Had a beautiful harbor, spacious markets, busy manufacturing and beautiful homes for protective wall
______ had the Strongest army - ________ had the strongest navy
Rome conquers Sicily...using Carthaginian technology (Quinqueremes)
First Punic War
Hannibal invades Italy from the Alps but can’t sustain campaign
Second Punic War
Fearful that Carthage is on the rise, Rome destroys Carthage after a three-year siege
Third Punic War
What was the Roman war policy?
Never fight a war of aggression (gods won’t give victory).
What was the status of women in rome?
- Women were under the control of their father and then their husband.
- A wife was the purchased property of her husband
- Women could not be Roman citizens and therefore couldn’t vote ro hold any public office.
Which two parties emerged to protect the republic?
- optimates (conservatives - Sulla, Cato, Cicero)
- Populares (power to people - Marius, Caesar)
What are 3 examples of the decline of the Republic?
- Corruption (Crassus’s fire insurance)
- Revolts and Conspiracies (Cataline)
- Civil War (Julius Caesar vs. Pompey)
What did Octavian stirs senate against Anthony for?
- his wedding to Cleopatra before his divorce from Octavian’s sister.
- his attempt to set up a Roman senate in Alexandria
Joins with Octavian (Augustus Ceasar) against the conspirators
He and Octavian defeat the conspirators and divide the rule of the empire between the east and west.
Who was popular and favored by the aristocrats?
Stopped uprising in Asia
Veni, vidi, vici - I came, I saw, I conquered
Conquest of Egypt
Killed Ptolemy and ran off with his wife, Cleopatra
Proclaimed “Dictator in perpetuity”
Instituted extensive reforms (improved housing, eliminated usuary, reduced corruption)
Octavian had an experienced Navy
Anthony’s army had little Naval experience
Battle of Actium