Tech 201 Ch 11 - Roman Republic

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  1. Period when: Ruled by a king and senate (patricians)
    Regal period
  2. Period when: ruled by two consuls, senate (patricians), plebian council (plebs), and other councils.
    Roman Republic
  3. Period when: ruled by an emperor; senate and councils become less influential
    Roman Empire
  4. The son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite, was commanded by the gods to take a group (Aeneids) and flee Troy to a new country (Rome).
  5. Period where:
    7 kings (Latin, Etruscan, Sabine)
    Oath of the Horatii (669 B.C.)
    The last monarch, Superbus, was ousted by the Romans and led the Etruscans in an attack against the Romans.
    Horatio at the bridge (505 B.C.)
    Held off Etruscans while Roman soldiers retreated.
    Crippled from a spear wound but lived to serve as a model of bravery
    Regal Period
  6. Period where:
    Where Senate (who were patricians) elected the monarch,now they elected two consuls.
    In 495 Rome was at war and the plebian soldiers refused to fight unless given the right to elect their own officials
    Patricians agreed to give them a right of veto and the plebian Tribunes were started.
    In fourth century B.C. the plebeian council was given the right to enact laws.
    Roman Republic
  7. Ruled by a senate and the people.
    SPQR = Senate and the people of Rome
    Senate (patricians)
    People (plebs)
    Republican government
  8. How was the Roman government similar to the government in the United States?
    • Balance of power
    • Senate and House of Representatives
    • Consul (= President)
    • Tribune (veto power and local govt.)
    • Courts (independent)
    • Military power (under consuls)
    • Censor (?)
  9. What historic event caused the Romans to replace the phalanx by the more flexible Roman Legion?
    In 390 B.C. the Romans were humiliated when Rome was sacked by the Celtic Gauls
  10. Front line soldiers who were the youngest & least reliable
  11. Second line men in their prime ages (late twenties to early thirties).
  12. Third line veteran soldiers used only in extreme situations.
  13. What were two forms of Roman military discipline?
    • Death for individual insubordination
    • Decimation for cowardice
  14. How did the Roman military have a Realistic view of power and weakness?
    • set up 3 re-deployment plans in case the army was forced to retreat
    • This meant that anyone fighting the Romans would have to defeat them three times
  15. City was 3x as large as Rome and more impressive. Had a beautiful harbor, spacious markets, busy manufacturing and beautiful homes for protective wall
  16. ______ had the Strongest army - ________ had the strongest navy
    • Rome
    • Carthage
  17. War when:
    Rome conquers Sicily...using Carthaginian technology (Quinqueremes)
    First Punic War
  18. War when:
    Hannibal invades Italy from the Alps but can’t sustain campaign
    Second Punic War
  19. War when: 
    Fearful that Carthage is on the rise, Rome destroys Carthage after a three-year siege
    Third Punic War
  20. What was the Roman war policy?
    Never fight a war of aggression (gods won’t give victory).
  21. What was the status of women in rome?
    • Women were under the control of their father and then their husband.
    • A wife was the purchased property of her husband
    • Women could not be Roman citizens and therefore couldn’t vote ro hold any public office.
  22. Which two parties emerged to protect the republic?
    • optimates (conservatives - Sulla, Cato, Cicero)
    • Populares (power to people - Marius, Caesar)
  23. What are 3 examples of the decline of the Republic?
    • Corruption (Crassus’s fire insurance)
    • Revolts and Conspiracies (Cataline)
    • Civil War (Julius Caesar vs. Pompey)
  24. What did Octavian stirs senate against Anthony for?
    • his wedding to Cleopatra before his divorce from Octavian’s sister.
    • his attempt to set up a Roman senate in Alexandria
  25. Joins with Octavian (Augustus Ceasar) against the conspirators
    He and Octavian defeat the conspirators and divide the rule of the empire between the east and west.
    Mark Anthony
  26. Who was popular and favored by the aristocrats?
    Julius Caesar
  27. Who:
    Defeated Pompey
    Stopped uprising in Asia
    Veni, vidi, vici - I came, I saw, I conquered
    Conquest of Egypt
    Killed Ptolemy and ran off with his wife, Cleopatra
    Proclaimed “Dictator in perpetuity”
    Instituted extensive reforms (improved housing, eliminated usuary, reduced corruption)
    Julius Caesar
  28. Octavian had an experienced Navy
    Anthony’s army had little Naval experience
    Battle of Actium
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Tech 201 Ch 11 - Roman Republic

Tech 201 Ch 11
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