food safety

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kamato
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179177
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food safety
Updated:
2012-12-08 19:30:27
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  1. Factors contributing to changes in american diet (7)
    i
    g
    d
    c
    d
    • industry consolidation
    • globalization
    • health concerns
    • dietary recommendations
    • culinary trends
    • dining habits
  2. 1985-2005 annual per capita consumption of: 
    fruit rose from...
    vegetables rose from 
    • fruit rose 89 to 101 lbs
    • vegetables from 123 to 174
  3. 2006 consumption of seafood rose from .... to .... in 1980  
    16.5 lbs to 12.5 lbs in 1980
  4. food industry met the consumer demand for ...
    ...by....
    broader variety of food--moving from locally grown to raised products
  5. 2012 salmonella outbreaks (12)
    • 50% due to animal exposure
    • cantelope

    • peanut butter
    • hedgehogs
    • mangoes
    • cantaloope
    • ground beef
    • live poultry
    • dry dog food
    • raw scrapped
    • small turtles
  6. 2011 salmonella outbreaks
    • ground beef
    • chicken livers
    • pine nutes
    • papayas
    • cantelope--but with different type
    • a lot more foods
    • animal exposure (chicks, ducks) 

    these organisms are not produce specific
  7. sources of information for public health surveillence (5) 
    • 1. animal data-USDA 
    • 2. use of health care services
    • 3. human disease
    • 4. population characterisitics- census
    • 5. environmental data
  8. agencies involved in food safety
    3 types 
    • 1) CDC
    • 2) regulatory agencies
    • -USFDA (food and drug)
    • -USDA
    •  (food safety and inspection service-FSIS)
    • 3) -all state run -each island has 
    • State department of Health (disease investigation branch, envion health services, state labs division)
    • Monitoring human illness-tracking the occurance of foodborne diseases
  9. linked online resources
    outbreakNet (NORS) (food, water, and ....)
  10. FoodNet-
    active surviellence (certain sites-call physicians)
  11. EHS-Net-S-net- 
    environ health specialists
  12. PulseNet-
    • bacterial fingerprinting
    • -DNA fingerprinting in a standardized methodology to compare patterns of various foodborne pathogens
  13. NARMS-
    • national antimicorbial resistance monitoring system
    • USDA and each state sends a representative sample for anti-micorbobial resitant organisisms
  14. eLExNET-
    • central food testing repository
    • -food borne pathogens
  15. CaliciNet
    just for norovirus
  16. CORE
    coordinated outbreak response and evaluation
  17. burden of disease
    • -only 12% of people seek medical care
    • -of the 12% physicians order cultures in 2%
    • -lab tested, confirmed and then reported to CDC
    • -these are used to determine incidence and prevalence
  18. incidence:
    __ in __ will get
    ____ will be hospitalized
    deaths:
    direct medical costs annually:
    reported outbreaks:
     multi-jurisdictional:
    • 1 in 6 will get FBI (or 48 million)
    • 128, 000 ppl in hospitals
    • deaths: 3,000 
    • direct medical costs annually: $365
    • reported outbreaks: 1,000
    •  multi-jurisdictional: 6% (the same outbreak is occuring in several dates--due to DNA fingerprinting)
  19. reducing foodborne
    • 1 mill ppl get sick from eating contaminated foods
    •  reducing foodborne illness by 10% prevent 5 million illnesses
    • -preventing a single fatal e. coli 0157 case saves $7 mill 
  20. food borne disease outbreaks-2009 compared to 2004-2008
    • getting better at predicting multi-jurisdictional outbreaks
    • -prior to 2009 data was incomplete (DOH couldnt always investigate) 
    • -better reporting (states spend more money--fed gover gives more money)
  21. pathogens website -UF in gainsville
    Foods responsible for illness
    • highlight 
    • poultry- be careful!!!
  22. Types of food associated
    • bag spinach
    • carrot juice
    • peanut butter
    • broccoli powder on a snack food
    • dog food
    • pot pies/frozen meals
    • hot peppers
    • pepper
    • raw cookie dough
    • hazelnuts
    • whole fresh papayas
    • pine nuts
    • kosher boiled chicken livers
    • scapred tuna products
  23. foodborne disease outbreaks (1973-2009)
    getting better in detection and surviellance
  24. Florida study detecting burden of disease
    • 1) use annual reported cases (incidence rate)
    • 2) rate for pathogen on outcomes (mild, moderate severe)
    • 3) assign numbers to reported cases
    • 4) fully recovered or died?
    • 5) scored -died or not? 
    • =quality of life years -impact ofd pathogen to daily function
  25. quality of life lost...
    • salmonella --ranked the highest 
    • norovirus-highly contagious (cruise ship illness) 
    • campy-- dangerous--dont have dishes in the sink

    *top 10 illness cost 14 million dollars
  26. types of meat
    • poultry-and campp
    • Toxoplasma- pork! -can go blind
  27. categories of food hazards (3) 
    • 1. intoxication
    • 2. infection (bacterial, viral, parasicitic)
    • 3. chemical
  28. bacteria that is a preformed toxin....
    • -immediate consumption of toxin causes symptoms
    • (like staph--once it is formed on the food item you cannot cook it out-->keep it cold enough to not grow)
    • (bacilus-can destroy with heat)
    • (Clostridium-can destroy with heat)
    • symptoms- projectile vomitting and diaherra
  29. other infections from bacteria 
    -difference-- organism actually has to grow in your body (fever, headache, muscles etc)
  30. parasites
    • diphyilobothrium-- salmon (tape worm)
    • giardia lamblia-beavers --not food borne-expposure to dog
  31. marine algease toxins
    • ciguatoxin-popular in hawaii'
    • tests are no longer good for it--
    • if the fish is caught on a hot spot --avoid these monthly pacific news
  32. fish toxin
    • temperature abuse of fish-histamine fish muscles--organisms on the fish break down cmpount 
    • scombrotoxin
  33. chemicals
    • mercury--this type doest necesarrily bind well in body but it is cummulative
    • -large fish 
  34. processing of food and availability for contaimination
    • 1. boat-cows-runoff
    • 2. processing plant (place itself in contaminated-salmonella in the bricks contaminated production line) 
    • 3. distribution (cargo, warehouse)
    • 4.  restuarant, retail, home (preparation, storage, re-packaging
  35. current food safety challenges (5) 
    • changes in food production and supply
    • changes in environment leading to food
    • rising number of multi-state outbreaks
    • new and emerging germs, toxins, and anti-biotitic resistance
    • new and difference contaminated food, such as pre-packaged raw cookie dough, bagged spinach, and peanut butter, causing illness
  36. timeline of reporting cases 
    • eat a food
    • 3-4 days get sick
    • may go tp physician
    • 3 days to ID
    • transient time to clinical lab 2 public health lab--> (7 days)
    • DNA fingerprinting 1-4 days 
  37. FDA Food safety moderinzation act (FMSA)

    focus on prevention
    • * gave more authority to FDA 
    • 1) Prevention (-mandatory prevention controls for food facilities -hazrds analyiss of critical control points
    • -mandatory produce safety standards-eg use of potable water or human compost)
    • 2) inspection and compliance--increase frequency of inspection (double-800 ) & increase food testing (1 to 4 % testing) 
    • 3) response--mandatory recall
    • 4) imports- must meet US standards 
  38. Surveillance (in hawaii)
    • 1) clinical  lab report to DOH electronically
    • 2) all salmonellas, shigellas, listerias, E. Coli 0157, V. Cholaerae are subtyped by pulsed field 
    • 3) PFGE is  DNA fingerprint
    • 4) NARMS
    • 5) FERN
    • 6) standarization of conducting foodborne investigations 
  39. Consumers Responsibility
    • 1) clean- 
    • 2) separate
    • 3)  cook food properly 175 degrees F
    • 5) chill to 70 within 2 hours, to 45 in 2 hours
  40. Foods associated with Salmonella outbreaks
    • one type major associated 
    • other types can affect ovaries of chicken (hard-boiled eggs

    • beef- 6%
    • poultry-22%
    • pork-6
    • eggs-11
    • complex-19
    • produce-17
    • dairy-6
  41. Salmonellosis
    • over 2000 serotypes (surface contamination)
    • top 5 in Hawaii (typhimurium (poke-incubation 4-5 days range 4-10 days) , Enteritidis, paratyphi B
    • muenchen, weltevreden) 
    • gram negative faculative anaerobe
    • non-spor forming-- no hard coating--drying can kills it
    • motile bacilli
    • fermenter- ground state oxidase negative
  42. How contaminated with Salmonellosis?
    • fecal-oral
    •  have to eat it (no sneezing) 
    • infects cells --> inflammation and tissue damage--> infects cells --
    • organism causes your body to react to the invasion 
    • 15- 48 hours before you get symptoms
    • species dependent-->
  43. E Coli 0157: H7 
    • most pathgenic
    • incubation 2-10days
    • majority cases no fever
    • Clinical symptoms - cramps, bloody diarrhea, vomiting
    • Hemo unterine sydnrome- HUS
    • duration of illness- 1-8 days
    • sorbital negative
    • shigatoxin positive
    • gram negative rod 
  44. Multistate Outbreak with Romaine Lettuce
    • FDA was unable to culture it...able to link it but not find it 
    • now they will actively go out and look for trace backs...
    • -dead ends get dropped. 
    • -are programs in place to help us in trace backs.
  45. outbreak with cookie dought
    • able to culture it
    • first diagnosed in Oregon -- all college aged girls 
  46. Listeriosis
    • listeriosis monocytogrnrd
    • clinical symptoms-mild flu like in healthy adults
    • incubation - 3 - 70 days
    • duration of illness- 1-3 weeks
  47. listeriosis
    • gram positive faculative anaerobe cooccobacilli
    • motile at roome temp
    • enrichment at 30 degreess C
    • capable of growth at 4 degree C
    • *can grow in fridge
  48. listeriosis is intracellular
    • once it is within the cell then our T cell has to kick in...and only way to attack organism but they stealth themselves and produce tails and avoid immune system by staying within the cells. 
    • *able to move from cell to cell and infect
  49. listeria is found in..
    • soil in the environment
    • -try to improve so it wont grow in farms and dainage
    • At Jensen farms 147 ppl got infected, 33 deaths, 28 states
    • *high mortality rate, passed on from mother to child in pregnancy
    • our body if is not immunocompromised we usually are ok. 
    • Epi curve- started in July and lasted until oct until they found out all the different cantalopes in CO. 
  50. camplobacteriosis
    • C. jejuni -most common to be isolated (16 other species)
    • incubation- 2-5 days
    • clinical symptoms- diarrhea (frequently bloody), abdominal pain, fever, nausea vomiting
    • duratino of illness-several days to several weeks
    •  
  51. campy
    • not very hearty--needs elevated growth temp 42C
    • survives in environment
    • gram negative thin curved bacilli
  52. campy virulence
    • poorly defined
    • enters cells and infects from bottom of cell 
    • adhesion and motality plays a role in causing diarrhea
  53. Staph aureus
    • gram positive facultive cocci arrangein clusters
    • catalase and coagulase positive
  54. staph aurues virulence factors
    • toxins- ETA ETB
    • 1) strucutural components- capsule, peptidogylcan
    • 2) toxins
    • teischoic acid, protien A, cytoplasmic membrance
    • 3) enzymes- coagulase, catalase, hyalueondinase, fibronolysin
    • -we all have a little but if it is given the opportunity to invade it will  (opportunistic)
    • associated with spam musubi
  55. clostribdium botulinum
    • anerobic- cannot grow with oxygen
    • 3 types:  food, wound, intestinal
    • is serious but rare
    • severn reconized types of C. botulinum types A, B,  E, F, G (C, D infect animals) 
    • powerful neurotoxin  (bioterrorism) 
  56. symptoms of botulism
    • *ascending
    • 1) double vision
    • 2) blurred vision
    • 3) drooping eyelids
    • 4) slurred speech
    • 5) difficulty swallowing
    • 6) dry mouth
    • 7) muscle weakness
    • 8) infants-lethagic feed poorly 
  57. foodborne
    • 1) marked fatigue (in kids floopy head)
    • 2) weakness and vertigo
    • 3) 
  58. norovirus
    • 1) single stranded RNA, non-envelope virus ( is not effected by aclohol--sanitizers dont kill)
    • 2) through consumption causes gastroenteritis in humans, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain
    • 3) incubation period- 24-48 and median 33-36 hours
    • 4) duration 24-72 hours
    • 5) highly contagious
    • * kill with bleach 10% 
  59. rat lung disease (angiostrongylus cantonensis)
    • causes eosinophilic meningitis
    • colonizes the rat and forms worms in the rats it will make eggs in rat and eggs hatch and the slugs come and eat the larvae and then they develop into 2nd and 3rd stage-- this is the infectious stage--

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