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Definition of power
The ability or official capacity to exercise control over others; a person, group, or nation having great influence or control over others.
The ability to influence the behaviors of others.
Formal - conferred, not earned, by position, not ability
Informal - leverage, earned & maintained; cannot be conferred
Positive and negative aspects of power
Positive: mutual trust, mutual respect, friendship
Negative: fear, deception, manipulation, bullying
Definition of privilege
Unearned advantage based on social group that simultaneously disadvantages members outside that social group.
Consequences of privilege - provide some examples
: seen when comparing empowered group to marginalized group
socioeconomic: American Indians and Alaska Natives are two times less likely than Whites to receiveprenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy.
race/ethnicity: Middle-class Blacks live in poorer neighborhoods than middle-class Whites
gender: The male-female wage gap in an organization is smaller when there are high-levelfemale executives.
gender & race: In the early stages of lung cancer, rates of surgery and survival are lower in Blackfemales than White females.
sexual orientation: Reported mental health problems have increased in the gay/lesbian/bisexualcommunity in those states that have passed laws banning same-sex marriage
norms: the norms of economically successful, White, Christian, heterosexual males became the norms to which all members of society were expected to comply.
- individual consequences - discussed in relation to self esteem
- - individuals of higher socioeconomic status receive more advantages, and individuals of lowersocioeconomic status receive more disadvantages.
- individuals with memberships to multipleempowered groups typically are unaware of the advantages of social privilege
Beingdifferent than normal requires that a member of a marginalized group continuallywork at maintaining a positive self-image
The more social identities associated withmarginalized groups, the greater the struggle to create and maintain high self-esteem.
Package of unearned advantages granted to those members of a diverse society with white skin
Connected to socioeconomic status privilege
an expression of institutional racism that is largely unacknowledged by White individuals
Rationalizations for retaining privileges & avoiding responsibilities
- It was unintentional
- It's all over now
- It's only a few people
- Costing victimization
Privilege & being an effective EOA.
- Decide your own social identity in relation to social privilege
- - examine your memberships in empowered groups
- - examine your memberships in marginalized groups
Per Fishbein: An unreasonable negative attitude toward others because of their membership in a particular group which does not get modified when exposes to new and conflicting information.
Describe the levels of privilege
Cognitive: stereotype, favorable or unfavorable, an overgeneralization or exaggeration that ignores individual differences within a group.
Emotional: feelings of hostility or liking based on characteristics such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or creed
Action-oriented: positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior
An action based on prejudice
Identify types of discrimination
Type A (isolate) : individual purposely acts to harm members of another group
Type B (small-group) : harmful affirmation intentionally by a small number of dominant-group individuals acting in concert against members of another group without direct supporting the norms of most social or community contexts.
Type C (direct institutionalized): organizationally prescribed or community prescribed action that by intention has a differential and negative impact on members of another group
Type D (indirect institutionalized) : dominant-group practices having a harmful impact on members of another group even though the organizationally or community prescribed norms or regulations guiding those actions have been established with no intent to harm
Define institutional discrimination
carried out by the dominant group against nondominant groups
dominant group generally controls the social institutions
discriminatory behavior is embedded in social institutions
Describe the categories of prejudice and discrimination
- National Origin
- Sexual Orientation
Describe how prejudice and discrimination can manifest
- In-Group versus Out-Group
- -In-group (most like me) = In-group bias
- -Out-group (least like me) = Out-group homogeneity
- Social Learning and Conformity
- - Laws, regulations, and norms of segregation or unequal access that maintain thepower of dominant groups over subordinate ones.
- - The media‘s portrayal of racial and ethnic groups may be a person‘s principalsource of information.
- Individual Contributions
- Actively contributing:
- -Verbally or physically harassing target group members.
- -Telling oppressive or offensive jokes.
- -Perpetuating stereotypes. o Avoiding out-groups.
- -Considering prejudice and discrimination to be a thing of the past.
- Inactively contributing
- -Condoning or accepting the status quo.
- -Ignoring acts of discrimination.
- -Refusing to acknowledge one‘s own privilege.
- -Believing that you have experienced and fully understand the oppression ofthe target group.
Definition of victim
- persons who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including:
- - Physical or mental injury.
- - Emotional suffering.
- - Economic loss.
- - Substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that areviolations of national criminal laws.
Definition of victim focus
a reactive problem-solving approach that narrowly defines problems in terms of the victims.
a distinct concept that has the victim at the center of its concerns andaddresses the needs of victims through research, education, and service to ultimatelycontribute to the improvement of the human condition in our country
Definition of system
an organized set of doctrines, ideas, or principles usuallyintended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole.
Discussion of strategies to prevent victim focus
- Assess the symptoms and causes of the problem
- Plan solutions to symptoms and causes
- Implement changes
- Evaluate changes
identifying authority & social identity
Race/ethnicity - whites are the empowered group
Socio-economic status - rich people are the empowered group
Gender - men are the empowered group
Sexual orientation - heterosexuals are the empowered group
Religion - Judeo-Christians, or perhaps only Christians, are the empowered group
Health - able-bodied people and those with good mental health are the empowered group
anyone who sees or otherwise becomes aware of behavior thatappears worthy of comment or action
a “psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely tointervene in a situation when others are present than when they are alone
(also known as bystander apathy)
a socialphenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical sizewhen responsibility is not explicitly assigned
Diffusion of responsibility
assessing a situation to determine what kind of intervention, if any, might be appropriate.
can also mean stepping in and acknowledgingand recognizing positive behaviors.
Why are Bystanders often hesitate to act
They fear loss of relationships, with the problem person or with others who maydisapprove of action.
They fear retaliation, especially if the problem person is powerful.
They fear embarrassment, especially if they may not be believed or they may beviewed as troublemakers, or as violating other community norms.
They feel a lack of competence, or uncertainty about what action would be best.
They believe someone else will take action (perhaps someone else with moreauthority or expertise).
How to Become an Active Bystander
Be on the lookout for situations that may require some intervention.
Learn how to recognize indications and always be aware of what is going on around you. As a bystander, it is much easier to recognize and encourage positive social behavior, but it takes some practice and courage to intervene and discourage or stop unacceptable behavior
Intervention Strategies to consider
- Strategies in the moment
- - Name or acknowledge an offense or good deed
- - Point to the “elephant in the room”
- - Interrupt the behavior
- - Publicly support an aggrieved person
- - Use body language to show disapproval or approval
- - Use humor (with care)
- - Encourage dialogue
- - Help calm strong feelings
- - Call for help
- Strategies after the Fact
- - Privately support an upset person
- - Talk privately with the inappropriate actor
- - Report the incident, with or without names
Which type of power may include the ability to reward and punish?
a. Reference Power
b. Formal power
c. Informal Power
d. Expert power
which base our power is established by the ability of the leader to give and receive information that is necessary to the successful functioning of the organization, or individual followers?
a. information power
b. referent power
c. reward power
d. expert power
which level of prejudice refers to the positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior?
a. action oriented
b. Isolate prejudice
c. cognitive prejudice
d. emotional prejudice
What are the 2 protected categories amended by the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
a. race, color
b. age and disability
c. race and National Origin
d. disability and religion
Age and Disability
which step in the process of blaming the victim looks at those who have a problem in order to separate them as a different group?
a. Step 1 - identify a social problem
b. Step 2 - study those affected by the problem
c. Step 3 - define the differences as the cause of the problem
d. Step 4 - initiate a program to correct the impact of the differences
Step 2 - study those affected by the problem
which statement defines the system
a. problem solving approach that broadly defines problems as being a part of or cause because by the system organization Society or community
b. organized set of doctrines ideas or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole
c. Persons who individually or collectively have suffered harm do to physical emotional or economic suffering
d. a reactive problem solving approach which narrowly defines problems in terms of the victim
organize setup doctrines ideas or printables usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic hole
___ is a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned
b. bystander effect
c. active bystanders
d. diffusion of responsibility
diffusion of responsibility
why do bystanders often hesitate to act
a. they believe someone else will take action
b. they fear to lose the status quo
c. they fear harassment charges
d. they lack leadership skills
they believe someone else will take action
what level of racism is described as policies and procedures that exist in an organization that systematically reflect racial inequalities
a. individual racism
b. intentional racism
c. institutional racism
d. unintentional racism
Which form of racism is an unconscious act that is not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm?
a. Unintentional racism
b. Institutional racism
c. Intentional racism
d. Individual racism