: seen when comparing empowered group to marginalized group
socioeconomic: American Indians and Alaska Natives are two times less likely than Whites to receiveprenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy.
race/ethnicity: Middle-class Blacks live in poorer neighborhoods than middle-class Whites
gender: The male-female wage gap in an organization is smaller when there are high-levelfemale executives.
gender & race: In the early stages of lung cancer, rates of surgery and survival are lower in Blackfemales than White females.
sexual orientation: Reported mental health problems have increased in the gay/lesbian/bisexualcommunity in those states that have passed laws banning same-sex marriage
norms: the norms of economically successful, White, Christian, heterosexual males became the norms to which all members of society were expected to comply.
- individual consequences - discussed in relation to self esteem
- - individuals of higher socioeconomic status receive more advantages, and individuals of lowersocioeconomic status receive more disadvantages.
- individuals with memberships to multipleempowered groups typically are unaware of the advantages of social privilege
Beingdifferent than normal requires that a member of a marginalized group continuallywork at maintaining a positive self-image
The more social identities associated withmarginalized groups, the greater the struggle to create and maintain high self-esteem.