Chemistry Chapter 4 and 5

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Chemistry Chapter 4 and 5
2012-10-22 22:20:01
chemistry chapter4 chapter5

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  1. Proportional or Inversely Proprtional

    Frequency/Wave Length
    Inversely proportional
  2. Proportional or Inversely Proprtional

    Wavelength/ Energy
    Inversely Proportional
  3. Proportional or Inversely Proprtional

    Frequency / energy
  4. Frequency  =  (symbol and Unit)
    u (1/sec;  Hz )
  5. Wavelength =  (symbol and unit)
     (m) the upside down y
  6. C =  (2answers)
    • speed of light is wavelength times frequency
    • c = 3.00 x 108 m/s
  7. High frequency is _____ energy
  8. Long wavelength is ___ energy
  9. Plancks Constant
    Energy of Light=
    h u(frequency)
  10. In Planck's constant:
    Energy of Light= h u(frequency)
    h = 6.626 x10-34 J s
  11. What is Planck’s constant
    E = h u
  12. What model is this?
    The Bohr Model
  13. When electrons move between energy levels they_____ or ____ light.
    absorb or give off
  14. atomic spectra.
    • when Electrons can move between
    •     energy levels absorbing or
    •     giving off light
  15. Emission spectra “atomic  finger prints”
  16. A problem with Bohr’s atom
    Electrons traveling in an orbit should give off light continuously  …  they don’t.
  17. What did De Broglie say about electrons
    They were waves containing specific amounts of energy
  18. Wave particle duality
    both sets of properties present – wave and particle properties
  19. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    We can only observe electrons by interaction with photons. Interactions with photons cause electrons to move.
  20. What did Heisenberg say about how we can know where and atom is.
    • Heisenberg says: we
    • can’t know where an electron
    • is AND where it is going at the
    • same time.
  21. Orbital: Definition
    A three dimensional space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found. 90% probablility.
  22. Orbitals
  23. Quantum Numbers:
      -Tells us.....
      -The 4 numbers are...
    • Tell us where electrons are LIKELY TO BE based on energy states of electrons
    • 1) energy level, 2) the sub level, 3) the orbital and 4) the spin.
  24. Energy Level or ______ _____ _______.
    What NUmbers
    • “principle quantum number”
    • n= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
  25. As n increases,  the energy and distance from nucleus _____.
  26. 2) The Sub Level:
       -Describe the ____
       - What are they
    • Describes the SHAPE
    • There are 4 shapes:  s, p, d, f
  27. 3) The Orbital
    Each orbital holds _ electrons.
    What is it?
    • 2
    • The orbital is the specific region of the sublevel the electron is in.
    •   s has 1, p has 3, d has 5, f has 7
  28. s orbitals are
    are spherical
  29. p orbitals are
     dumbell shaped
  30. d orbitals are
  31. f orbitals are
    really complex
  32. 4) The Spin
    For each orbital there are two spins: up and down.
  33. n^2=
    total number of obitals in the Energy Level
  34. 2n^2=
    Number of Electrons in an Energy Level
  35. As ____ _____ goes up, orbitals get _____.
    Energy Levels, Bigger
  36. Electron Configuration:
    Arrangement of electrons in an atom.
  37. Aufbau principle:
    an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that it can.
  38. Hund’s Rule:
    orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron.
  39. Pauli exclusion principle:
    no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers
  40. Orbital Notation
    24         Cr     [Ar] 4s1 3d5 Crunium
    29         Cu     [Ar] 4s1 3d10 Copper
    • 24         Cr     [Ar] 4s1 3d5 crunium
    • 29         Cu     [Ar] 4s1 3d10 copper
  42. If an electron moves from a lower energy level to a higher energy level light is________.
  43. If an electron moves from a higher energy level to a lower  energy level light is _______
  44. Lyman series:
    UV light, goes to n=1 level
  45. Balmer series:
    visible light, goes to n=2 level
  46. Paschen series:
    Infrared light, goes to n=3 level
  47. Atomic #= # of ______and # of ______.
    protons and electrons
  48. atomic mass=
    (mass #* %)+ (mass #* %)/ 100
  49. isotope
    same element but different nuetrons and different mass number
  50. mass # =
    num of protons + Nuetrons
  51. Forms of radiation for low to high energy
    • Radio - High wavelength  low frequency and energy
    • Microwaves
    • Infared
    • Visible- red (low energy) Orange Yellow Green Blue
    • Ultraviolet
    • Xrays
    • Gamma rays- High energy and frequency low wave length
  52. Stable electron configurations are likely to contain orbitals that are completely _______ or _________.
    full or empty