SUR 101 Ch. 7

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SUR 101 Ch. 7
2012-10-23 23:01:09

microbes and infection
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  1. disease immunity established through cellular memory following exposure to the disease antigen
    acquired immunity
  2. production of antibodies which combat a specific disease
    active immunity
  3. chemical agent used specifically for treatment of bacterial infection
  4. macromolecules on the surface of cells that identify them as part of the organism or foreign
  5. primitive, single-celled prokaryotes
  6. spread of infection from one part of the body to another part
  7. rod-shaped bacteria that occur in pairs, chains or filaments
  8. virus that invades bacterial cells and can replicate from within the cell
  9. unicellular microorganism with rigid cell wall
  10. method of classifying living organisms by genus and species
    binomial system
  11. measure of number of bacterial colonies on a surface
  12. surface layer on some cells that resists chemicals and invasion of viruses
    capsule (slime layer)
  13. protein substance containing genetic code of the cell
  14. round or spherical bacteria that occur in chains, pairs or clusters
  15. relationship between two organisms in which one uses the other for physiological needs but causes it no harm
  16. spread of infection from one person to another or from object to person
  17. substance contained within the cell which contains fluid cystosol and functional "organs" of cell
  18. separation of tissue edges of a surgical wound
  19. mechanism for adjusting amount of light entering microscope
  20. uniform dispersal of particles in a solution or across a membrane
  21. process by which cell engulfs large particles in environment
  22. extension of nuclear membrane in the cell that facilitates the movement of protein out of nucleus
    endoplasmic reticulum
  23. bacterial toxins associated with outer membrane of certain Gram-negative bacteria - released when cells are disrupted or broken down
  24. basic type of cell - surrounded by membrane and contains complex organs for metabolism and reproduction
  25. protrusion of internal organ through a wound or surgical incision
  26. process in which substances are removed from a cell
  27. toxic substances produced by microorganisms and excreted outside bacterial cell
  28. ability of some organisms to live with or without oxygen
  29. intermediate, inanimate source in process of disease transmission
  30. extension of endomembrane of cell that stores, modifies and transports large molecules
    Golgi apparatus
  31. breakdown or rupture of red blood cells
  32. nonspecific immunity present from birth - body's normal physiologic reaction to injury
    innate immunity
  33. process whereby viruses replicate their genetic material and then cause host cell to rupture, releasing genetic material
  34. organelle capable of releasing enzymes to kill the cell
  35. organelle that synthesizes ATP to provide cellular energy
  36. relationship of two organisms of different species in which both benefit by the association
  37. referring to fungi
  38. region of prokaryotic cell where DNA is located but not enclosed
  39. organielle inside nucleus that contains proteins necessary for cell reproduction
  40. movement of substances or liquid by diffusion or osmosis
    passive transport
  41. having developed pus and fluid
  42. developed first smallpox vaccination in 1796
    Edward Jenner
  43. first practiced surgery using antiseptic practices in 1867
    Joseph Lister
  44. developed first rabies vaccine in 1885
    Louis Pasteur
  45. discovered penicillin in 1928
    Alexander Fleming
  46. 7 classifications of biology system
    • genus
    • family
    • order
    • class
    • phylum
    • kingdom
    • domain
  47. classifications of microbes
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • prions
    • fungi
    • protozoa
    • rickettsiae
  48. cell theory developed in 1600s
    • cell is fundamental unit of all living things
    • all living things are composed of cells
    • all cells are derived from other cells
  49. basic type of cell
  50. what facilitates movement of protein out of the nucleus?
    endoplasmic reticulum
  51. what stores and modifies large molecules and transports them inside the cell?
    Golgi apparatus
  52. what is responsible mainly for synthesizing ATP?
  53. what is the primary structural difference between prokaryote and eukaryote?
    absence of a distinct nucleus in the prokaryote
  54. movement of liquid through a semipermeable membrane
  55. process in which the cell engulfs large particles from outside the cell
  56. cell takes in water and small particles by surrounding them with a membrane-covered blister or vesicle
  57. large particles engulfed and digested by the cell
  58. contents of lysosome released from the cell
  59. gram-positive bacteria
    • thicker wall
    • appears dark purple under gram stain
  60. gram-negative bacteria
    • thinner wall that does not absorb stain
    • appear pink under gram staining
  61. 2 dyes used in gram staining
    • crystal violet as primary stain
    • safranin as counterstain
  62. what is acid-fast staining technique primarily used for?
    identification of Mycobacterial organisms, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  63. what acid-fast stain test is most commonly used?
    Ziehl-Neelsen test
  64. what is involved in Ziehl-Neelsen test?
    • uses stain carbofuschin or methylene blue
    • colors the cell wall pink, leaving a blue background
  65. 2 main types of microscopes
    • optical microscope
    • scanning probe microscope
  66. bacteria that cause infection
  67. pyogenic bacteria
    • streptococcal
    • staphylococcal
    • meningococcal
    • pneumococcal
    • gonococcal
    • coliform bacilli
  68. bacteria that produce spores can live in temp ranges of what?
    • -4 to 194 degrees F
    • -20 to 90 degrees C
  69. at what pH level can Helicobacter pylori invade gastric mucosa and reproduce?
    pH of 2
  70. 2 important spore-forming bacteria
    • Clostridium tetani
    • Bacillus anthracis
  71. dormant phase in reproductive cycle in which bacteria form a thick, multilayered protein wall around genetic material which can resist boiling, drying, chemical destruction and high pressure
  72. 4 bacterial characteristic phases of growth
    • lag phase
    • exponential log phase
    • stationary phase
    • death phase
  73. phase of bacterial growth in which the bacterial do not divide, but are processing or synthesizing components for cell division
    lag phase
  74. phase of bacterial growth in which cell division rate is conostant and rapid
    exponential (log) phase
  75. bacterial growth rate in exponential phase
    doubling time or generation time
  76. phase of bacterial growth in which cell division stops
    stationary phase
  77. phase of bacterial growth in which bacteria can no longer survive and colony dies out
    death phase
  78. most widespread cause of surgical site infections
    Staphylococcus aureus
  79. examples of Gram-positive cocci
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Staphylococcus epidermis
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  80. what is the primary cause of pneumonia and otitis media?
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  81. examples of aerobic Gram-negative rods and cocci
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • Enteric bacteria
    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella enterica
    • Salmonella typhi
  82. examples of spore-forming bacteria
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Clostridium tetani
    • Clostridium difficile
  83. most common cause of urinary tract infections
    E. coli
  84. type of bacteria carried by specific species of ticks, mites, and fleas
  85. nonliving infectious agent that ranges in size from 10 to 300 nm
  86. pathogenicity of viruses
    • ability to enter healthy cell
    • ability to develop
    • ability to resist host's defense mechanisms
    • cell transformation
    • ability to synthesize substances not normally produced by the host cell
    • ability to initiate structural changes in the host cell
  87. HIV can be transmitted through what body fluids?
    • blood
    • semen
    • vaginal secretions
    • breast milk
    • cerebrospinal fluid
    • synovial fluid
    • amniotic fluid
    • any body fluid containing blood
  88. disease of liver that is caused by one of 5 significant viruses
    viral hepatitis
  89. how are hepatitis B, C and D viruses transmitted?
    when infected blood enters body of another person
  90. how are hepatitis A and E viruses transmitted?
    through contaminated food or water
  91. incubation period of hepatitis B
    10 to 12 weeks
  92. causal agent of liver cancer
    hepatitis C
  93. predictors for HPV in women
    • women under 25 years of age
    • multiple sex partners
    • early onset of sexual activity
    • male partner with history of multiple partners
  94. most important prion disease
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  95. requirements for infection
    • microbe must have entry site and exit site
    • microbes must be present in sufficient numbers
    • environment must be well suited to pathogen
    • host must be unable to overcome harmful mechanisms of pathogen
  96. completely free of all microorganisms
  97. portals of entry
    • urogenital infection
    • skin penetration
    • sexually transmitted diseases
    • mother-to-infant transmission
  98. phases of disease
    • incubation
    • prodromal phase
    • acute phase
    • convalescence
  99. for what types of infections are antibiotics used?
    bacterial and fungal
  100. main mechanisms of antimicrobial therapy
    • inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • interference with genetic replication (protein synthesis)
    • inhibition of metabolic pathways in the microbe
  101. second most frequent type of HAI in US hospitals
    surgical site infections
  102. 2 general types of immunity
    • innate immunity
    • acquired immunity
  103. immunity that exists from time of birth
    innate immunity
  104. body's defense mechanisms against infection
    • intact skin
    • respiratory system
    • bacteriostatic chemicals in saliva, low pH in stomach and resident flora in intestine
    • normal flora
    • inflammatory response
    • cellular response
  105. functions of resident flora
    • prevent invading organisms from colonizing
    • maintain pH of skin and mucous membranes to prevent growth of harmful microorganisms
    • produce fatty acids on skin to serve as barrier
  106. 4 classic signs of inflammation
    • heat
    • redness
    • swelling
    • pain
  107. 2 types of acquired immunity
    • active immunity
    • passive immunity
  108. active immunity developed in 2 ways:
    • getting the disease
    • vaccination
  109. passive immunity occurs when:
    • fetus receives antibodies in utero
    • antibody given by injection
  110. 2 main types of vaccinations
    • live attenuated vaccines (viruses and bacteria)
    • inactivated vaccines (whole and fractional)
  111. 4 categories of allergic reactions
    • type I - inflammation of tissues
    • type II - cytotoxic reaction - result of interaction between 2 antibodies and cell surface antigens
    • type III - caused by antigen-antibody complexes
    • type IV - cell-mediated reactions
  112. most extreme form of type I allergic reaction
    anaphylactic shock
  113. example of type II allergic reaction
    mismatched blood transfusion and hemolytic disease in newborns
  114. example of type III allergic reaction
    allergy to antibiotics
  115. example of type IV allergic reaction
    positive reaction to tuberculin skin test