Structure and Function

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Author:
DesLee26
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179224
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Structure and Function
Updated:
2012-10-22 22:50:59
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Bio
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Exam II
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  1. Ribosome structure
    •  
    • Composed of 2 subunits, one large,
    • one small
    •  
    • Each subunit is an aggregation of
    • proteins and rRNA
  2. Ribosome function
    site of protein synthesis
  3. RER Structure
    Network of membranous sacs called cisternae; ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic surface of the membranes
  4. RER fucntion
    •  
    • Synthesis of proteins that are secreted
    • from the cell
    •  
    • Membrane factory
  5. SER Structure
    •  
    • Network of membranous tubules
    •  
    • Membrane lack ribosomes
  6. SER Function
    •  
    • Synthesis of lipids, such as oils,
    • phospholipids and steroids
    •  
    • Carbohydrate metabolism
    •  
    • Detoxification of drugs
  7. Golgi Structure
    •  
    • Stack of flattened membranous sacs
    • (cisternae)
    •  
    • Has distinct polarity with receiving and
    • shipping ends
  8. Golgi Function
    •  
    • Products of the ER are modified,
    • stored and packaged for other
    • destinations
    •  
    • Manufactures some polysaccharides
  9. Lysosome Structure
    •  
    • Membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic
    • (digestive) enzymes
    •  
    • Internal pH of 5
  10. Lysosome Function
    •  
    • Digest macromolecules used for food
    • or help defend the body by digesting
    • potentially dangerous bacteria
    •  
    • Recycle cell’s own organic material
  11. Plant Vacuole Structure
    •  
    • Enclosed by a membrane called the
    • tonoplast
    •  
    • Sac containing mostly water and some
    • dissolved materials
  12. Plant Vacuole Function
    •  
    • Stores organic compounds and
    • inorganic ions
    • Disposal site for metabolic by-products
    •  
    • May contain pigments
    • May contain toxins
    •  
    • Role in growth of plant cells
  13. Peroxisome and Glyoxysome Structure
    •  
    • Single-membrane-bound spherical sac
    • with no internal structure
    •  
    • May contain a large crystal
  14. Peroxisome Function
    • All produce and destroy H2O2
    • Peroxisome:  Break down fatty acids
    •    into smaller molecules that are used
    •    as fuel for cellular respiration;
    •    detoxify alcohol and other drugs
  15. Glyoxysome Function
    •  
    • All produce and destroy H2O2
    •  
    • Glyoxysomes:  Convert fatty acids to
    •    sugars
    •  
  16. Mitochondrion Structure
    •  
    • Enclosed by 2 membranes:  Outer
    • membrane smooth, inner membrane
    • folded into cristae
    •  
    • Inner membrane encloses the matrix
    • that contains ribosomes and DNA
  17. Mitochondrion Function
    site of cell resp
  18. Chloroplast
    •  
    • Enclosed by 2 membranes
    • Third membrane system of flattened sacs
    • called thylakoids stacked in grana
    • Fluid surrounding grana called stroma
    • which contains ribosomes and DNA
    • Grana and thylakoids contain
    • chlorophyll
    •  
  19. Chloroplast
    Site of photosynthesis
  20. Nucleus Structure
    •  
    • Enclosed by 2 membranes called the
    • nuclear envelope
    • Pores in the nuclear envelope
    •  
    • Contains DNA in chromosomes
    •  
    • Contains the nucleolus
  21. Nucleus Function
    •  
    • Stores genetics information
    •  
    • Controls protein synthesis, which occurs
    • in the cytoplasm
  22. Nucleolus Structure
    •  
    • Roughly spherical
    •  
    • Mass of densely stained granules and
    • fibers adjoining parts of the 
  23. Nucleolus Function
    •  
    • Synthesis of rRNA
    •  
    • rRNA and proteins assembled into
    • ribosomal subunits (large and small)
  24. Microtubules Structure
    • Hollow tubes composed of the protein
    • tubulin
    •  
    • Approximately 25 nm in diameter
  25. Microtubules Function
    •  
    • Maintenance of cell shape (cytoskeleton)
    • Cell motility (major component of
    • cilia and flagella)
    • Chromosome movement in cell division
    • Organelle movements
  26. Microfilament Structure
    • 2 intertwined strands of the protein
    • actin
    •  
    • Approximately 7 nm in diameter
  27. Microfilament Function
    •  
    • Maintenance of cell shape (cytoskeleton)
    • Changes in cell shape
    • Muscle contraction
    • Cytoplasmic streaming (cyclosis)
    • Cell motility (amoeboid movement)
    • Formation of cleavage furrow during
    • cell division
  28. Intermediate Filament Structure
    • Fibrous proteins (such as keratin)
    • supercoiled into cables
    •  
    • 8-12 nm in diameter
  29. Intermediate Filament Function
    •  
    • Maintenance of cell shape (cytoskeleton)
    • Anchorage of nucleus and other
    • organelles
    • Formation of nuclear lamina
  30. Eukaryotic Cilia and Flagella
    • Contain a core of 9 doublets of
    • microtubules in a ring
    •  
    • Contain other proteins in the radial
    • spokes, arms coming off of the doublets,
    • and other structures
  31. Eukaryotic Cilia and flagella Function
    •  
    • Propels single cells through liquid
    •  
    • Cilia:  May propel fluid over the
    • surface of eukaryotic cells fixed in
    • place in a tissue
  32. Centriole and Basal Bodies
    •  
    • Composed of 9 sets of triple
    • microtubules arranged in a ring
    •  
    • Structurally identical to each other
  33. Centriole Function
    • Centriole:  May help organize
    •    microtubule assembly when cell divides
  34. Basal Body Function
    •  
    • Basal body:  Anchors cilium or flagellum
    •    to the cell
  35. Bacterial Flagella Structure
    •  
    • Composed of protein flagellin + other
    • proteins
    •  
    • Filament, hook, basal apparatus
  36. Bacterial Flagella Function
    Propels cell through liquid
  37. Plant Cell Wall Structure
    •  
    • Composed mainly of cellulose embedded
    • in a matrix of other polysaccharides and
    • protein
    •  
    • Primary:  All plant cells; relatively thin
    • and flexible
    • Secondary:  Some cells; between plasma
    • membrane and primary wall; strong and
    • durable
  38. Plant Cell Wall Function
    •  
    • Protects the plant cell
    •  
    • Maintains cell shape
    •  
    • Prevents excessive uptake of water
    •  
  39. Bacterial Cell Wall Structure
    •  
    • Composed of peptidoglycan
    • (i.e. a polymer of modified sugars
    • crosslinked by short polypeptides)
  40. Bacterial Cell Wall function
    •  
    • Protects the cell
    •  
    • Maintains cell shape
    •  
    • Prevents excessive uptake of water

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