Med Terms Ch. 10 and 13

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Med Terms Ch. 10 and 13
2012-10-25 12:23:41
Med Terms

Endocrine and Musculoskeletal Systems
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  1. antagonistic
    acting in opposition; matually opposing
  2. electrolytes
    Mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry electrical charge in solution
  3. glucagon
    Hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose
  4. glucose
    Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrated digestion
  5. homeostasis
    relative constancy or  balance in the internal enviroment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in respone to external or internal changes
  6. hormones
    chemical substances produced by specialized cells of the body that are released slowly in minute amounts directly into the bloodstream
  7. insulin
    hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen)
  8. sympathomimetic
    • agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
    • (ie. epinephrine and norepinephrine)
  9. target
    structure, organ, tissue to which something is directed
  10. another name for anterior pituitary hormones
  11. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets adrenal cortex
    • promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
    • Disorders: Hypersecretion causes Cushing Disease
  12. follicle-stimulating  hormone (FSH)
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets ovaries and testes
    • in females, stimulates egg production; increase secretion of estrogen
    • in males, stimulates sperm production
    • Disorders: Hyposection causes failure of sexual maturation
  13. growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues
    • stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
    • Disorders: hyposecretion in children causes pituitary dwarfism; hypersecrertion in children causes gigantism  and in adults causes acromegaly
  14. Leutinizing hormone (LH)
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets ovaries and testes
    • in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone
    • in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
    • Disorders: Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
  15. Prolactin
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets breast
    • in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation
    • Disorders: hypersecretion in nursing mothers cause galactorrhea
  16. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • anterior pituitary hormone
    • targets thyroid gland
    • stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
    • Disorders: hyposecretion in infants cause cretinism and in adults causes myxedema; hypersecretion causes Graves disease (indicated by exophthalamos)
  17. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • posterior pituitary hormone
    • targets kidney
    • increases water reabsorption (water returns to the blood)
    • Disorders: hyposecretion causes diabetes insipidus; hypersecretion causes syndrome of inappropriate antidiurectic hormone (SIADH)
  18. Oxytocin
    • posterior pituitary hormone
    • targets uterus and breast
    • stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor; promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
    • Disorders: unknown
  19. Calcitonin
    • thyroid hormone
    • regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone; secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
    • Disorders: most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing dramatically in mass size and shape; at best, calcitonin is a weak hypicalcemic agent in adults
  20. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    • thyroid hormones
    • increases energy production from all food types; increases rate of protein synthesis
    • Disorders: hyposecretion in infants causes cretinism and in adults causes myxedema; hypersecretion causes Graves disease (indicated by exophthalmos)
  21. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • targets bones, kidneys, small intestine
    • increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood; increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion; increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
    • Disorders: Hyposecretion causes tetany; hypersecretion causes osteitis fibrosa cystica
  22. Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
    • adrenal cortex hormone
    • targets body cells
    • promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; and help depress inflammatory and immune respones
    • Disorders: hypo-addison disease; hyper - cushing syndrome
  23. Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone)
    • adrenal cortex hormone
    • targets kidneys
    • increases blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
    • disorders: hypo-addison disease; hyper - aldosteronism
  24. sex hormones
    • adrenal cortex hormone
    • in females, possibly responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause
    • Disorders: Hypersecretion of androgen in females leads to virilism and of estrogen and progestin secretion in males lead to feminization
  25. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    • adrenal medullary hormones
    • sympathetic nervous system target organs
    • hormone effects sympathomimetic activation, increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
    • disorders: hypersecretion causes prolonged fight or flight reaction and hypertension
  26. Glucagon (hormone)
    • pancreatic hormone
    • targets liver and blood
    • raises blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver and other nutrients in the liver and releasing glucose into blood
    • Disorders: persistently low blood glucose levels - hypoglycemia
  27. Insulin (hormone)
    • pancreatic hormone
    • target tissue cells
    • lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells and the use of that glucose for energy production
    • Disorders: hypo - causes diabetes mellitus; hyper - hyperinsulinism
  28. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal glands
  29. calc/o
  30. crin/o
  31. gluc/o, glyc/o, glycos/o
    sugar, sweetness
  32. home/o
    same, alike
  33. kal/i
    potasium (an electrolyte)
  34. pancreat/o
  35. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid glands
  36. thym/o
    thymus gland
  37. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland
  38. toxic/o
  39. -crine
  40. -dipsia
  41. -gen
    producing, forming, origin
  42. -uria
  43. eu-
    good, normal
  44. -oid
  45. exo-
    outside, outward
  46. acromegaly
    chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw
  47. diuresis
    increased formation and secretion of urine
  48. glucose
    simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  49. glycosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
  50. Graves disease
    multisystem autoimmune disorder characterizd by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos
  51. hirsutism
    excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
  52. hypercalcemia
    excessive amount of calcium in the blood
  53. hyperkalemia
    excessive amount of potassium in the blood
  54. hypervolemia
    abnormal increase in the volume of circulation fluid (plasma) in the body
  55. hyponatremia
    abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood
  56. natr
    sodium (an electrolyte)
  57. insulinoma
    tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  58. obesity
    excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
  59. morbid obesity
    body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body wight
  60. panhypopituitarism
    total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
  61. pheochromocytoma
    small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla
  62. thyroid storm
    crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
  63. virile
    masculine or having characteristics of a man
  64. virilism
    masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman
  65. protein-blood iodine (PBI)
    test that measures the concentration of thyroxine in a blood sample
  66. thyroid function test (TFT)
    test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
  67. total calcium
    test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
  68. exophthalmometry
    test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease
  69. ophthalm/o
  70. fasting blood glucose (GTT)
    test that measures the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals
  71. insulin tolerance test
    test that determines insulin levels in serum (blood) by administering insulin and measuring blood glucose levels in blood at regular intervals
  72. computed tomography
    imaging techinque that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  73. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an xray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  74. radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
    administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
  75. thyroid scan
    after injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland
  76. microneurosurgery of the pituitary gland
    microdissection of a tumor using a bionocular surgical microscope for magnification
  77. parathyroidectomy
    excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
  78. pinealectomy
    removalo of the pineal body
  79. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  80. thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland

    • partial: method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid
    • subtotal: removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism
  81. antidiuretics
    • reduce or control excretion of urnine
    • generic name: vasopressin (Pitressin, Pressyn)
  82. antithyroids
    • treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of Tand T4 hormone
    • Generic names: methimazole (Tapazole) and strong iodine solution (Lugol's solution)
  83. corticosteroids
    • replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (addison disease)
    • Generic names: cortisone (Cortisone acetate) and hydrocortisone (A-Hydrocort, Cortef)
  84. growth hormone replacements
    • increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
    • Generic name: somatropin (recombinant), Humatrope, Norditropin
  85. insulins
    • lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen
    • generic names: regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R) and NPH insulin (Humulin N, Novolin N, Humulin)
  86. oral antidiabetics
    • treat type 2 diabetes, mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripjeral resistance to insulin
    • generic names: glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) and glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase)
  87. thyroid supplements
    • replace  or supplement thyroid hormones
    • generic names: levothyroxine (Levo-T, Levoxyl, Synthyroid) and liothryonine (Cytomel, Triostat)
  88. appendage
    any body part attached to a main structure
  89. articulation
    place of union between two or more bones; also called joint
  90. cancellous
    spongy or porous structure, as found at the ends of long  bones
  91. cruciate ligaments
    ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
  92. cruci
  93. -ate
    having the form of; possesing
  94. hematopoiesis
    production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
  95. -poiesis
    formation, production
  96. adduction
    moves closer to the midline
  97. abduction
    moves away from the midline
  98. Flexion
    decreases the angle of a joint
  99. extension
    increases the angle of a joint
  100. rotation
    moves a bone around its own axis
  101. pronation
    turns the palm down
  102. supination
    turns the palm up
  103. inversion
    moves the sole of the foot inward
  104. eversion
    moves the sole of the foot outward
  105. dorsiflexion
    elevates the foot
  106. plantar flexion
    lowers the foot (points the toes)
  107. Nonarticulating surfaces
    • projections
    • bone marking: trochanter
    • very large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur
  108. sites of muscle and ligament attachment
    • projections
    • bone marking: tubercle, tuberosity
    • tubercle - small, rounded process
    • tuberosity - large, rounded process
  109. Projections that form joints
    • articulating surfaces
    • bone marking: see below
    • condyle - rounded, articulating knob
    • head - prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone
  110. sites for blood vessel, nerve, and duct passage
    • depressions and openings
    • bone marking: see below
    • foramen- rounded opening thru and nerves a bone to accomodate blood vessels
    • fissure-narrow, slitlike opening
    • meatus-opening or passage into a bone
    • sinus-cavity or hollow space in a bone
  111. The main function of the musculoskeletal system...
    is to provide support, protection, and movement of body parts
  112. The main function of the endocrine system...
    is to secrete hormones that have a diverse effect on cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
  113. ankyl/o
    stiffness; bent, crooked
  114. kyph/o
  115. lamin/o
    lamina (part of vertebral arch)
  116. lord/o
    curve, swayback
  117. -osis
    abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
  118. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  119. orth/o
  120. ped/o, ped/i
    foot; child
  121. oste/o
  122. scoli/o
    crooked, bent
  123. -dynia
  124. acromi/o
    acromion (projection of scapula)
  125. brachi/o
  126. calcane/o
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  127. carp/o
    carpus (wrist bone)
  128. -ptosis
    prolapse, downward displacement
  129. -ad
  130. cephal/o
  131. clavicul/o
    clacicle (collar bone)
  132. cost/o
  133. dactyl/o
    fingers; toes
  134. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  135. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
  136. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  137. ili/o
    ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  138. ischi/o
    ischium (lower portion of hip bone)
  139. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  140. metacarp/o
    metacarpus (hand bones)
  141. metatars/o
    metatarsus (foot bones)
  142. -algia
  143. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  144. phalang/o
    phalanges (bones of the finger and toes)
  145. pod/o, ped
  146. pub/o
    pelvis bone (anterior part of pelvic bone)
  147. coccyg
    coccyx (tailbone)
  148. -eal
    pertaining to
  149. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
    vertebrae (backbone)
  150. inter-
  151. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  152. tibi/o
    tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
  153. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle (visveral)
  154. muscul/o, my/o
  155. rhabd/o
    rod-shaped (striated)
  156. rhabdomy/o
    rod-shaped (striated) muscle
  157. chondr/o
  158. fasci/o
    band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
  159. -plasty
    surgical repair
  160. synov/o
    synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  161. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
  162. -desis
    binding, fixation (of a bone or joint)
  163. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  164. -blast
    embryonic cell
  165. -clasia
    to break; surgical fracture
  166. -clast
    to break
  167. -malacia
  168. -physis
  169. -porosis
  170. -scopy
    visual examination
  171. dys- 
    painful; bad; difficult
  172. sub-
    under, below
  173. supra-
    above; excessive; superior
  174. -trophy
    development, nourishment
  175. syn-
    union, together, joined
  176. ankylosis
    stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
  177. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal thru which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
  178. claudication
    lameness, limping
  179. contracture
    fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
  180. crepitation
    dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
  181. electromyography
    use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
  182. exacerbation
    increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
  183. ganglion cyst
    tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
  184. hemarthrosis
    effusion of blood into a joint cavity
  185. hypotoia
    loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
  186. ton
  187. multiple myeloma
    primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
  188. myel
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  189. osteophyte
    bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressue on the spinal cord also called bone spur
  190. phantom limb
    perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
  191. prosthesis
    replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as artificial extermity
  192. rickets
    form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
  193. sequestrum
    fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
  194. sequestr
  195. -um
    structure, thing
  196. spondylolisthesis
    any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
  197. spondyl/o
    vertebrae (backbone)
  198. -listhesis
  199. spondylosis
    degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
  200. sprain
    tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
  201. strain
    to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular
  202. subluxation
    partial or incomplete dislocation
  203. talipes equinovarus
    congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called clubfoot
  204. arthrography
    series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
  205. bone density tests
    radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray abosrption to measure bone mineral density (BMD)
  206. discography
    radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures by injecting a constrast medium
  207. lumbosacral spinal radiography
    radiography of the 5 lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
  208. myelography
    radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
  209. scintigraphy
    nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
  210. bone
    scintigraphy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
  211. reduction
    procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
  212. closed reduction
    reduction procedure where fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
  213. open reduction
    reduction procedure that treats bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using surgery
  214. casting
    application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a body part to immobilze it during the healing process
  215. splinting
    application of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process
  216. traction
    use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facilitate the healing process
  217. amputation
    partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
  218. arhtrocentesis
    puncture of a joint space usig a needle to remove accumulated fluid
  219. -centesis
    surgical puncture
  220. arthroclasia
    surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
  221. arthroscopy
    visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
  222. bone grafting
    implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
  223. bursectomy
    excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
  224. laminectomy
    excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
  225. lamin
    lamina - part of vertebral arch
  226. revision surgery
    surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prothesis
  227. bone revsion surgery
    revision surgery are often required to correct abnormalities due to bone infection, or to correct misalignments of bones, broken prosthesis, and fractures of the bone around the prostheses
  228. sequestrectomy
    excision of a sequestrum (segement of necrosed bone)
  229. synovectomy
    excision of a synovial membrane
  230. sequestr
  231. synov
    synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  232. total hip replacement (THR)
    surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
  233. calcium supplements
    • treat and prevent hypocalcemia
    • (ie. calcium carbonate, calcium citrate)
  234. gold salts
    • treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system
    • (ie. auranofin, aurothioglucose)
  235. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • decrease pain and suppress inflammation
    • (ie. ibuprofen, naproxen)
  236. salicylates
    • Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
    • (ie. aspirin, magnesium salicylate)
  237. skeletal muscle relaxants
    • relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
    • (ie. cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol and aspirin)