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What is the CP (crude protein) of Excellent Quality forage?
> 13% CP
What is the CP % (crude protein) of Medium Quality forage?
7 - 12 % CP
What is the CP % (crude protein) of Poor Quality forage?
< 6 % CP
What is the CF % (crude fiber) of an Excellent Quality forage?
What is the CF% (crude fiber) of a Medium Quality forage or a mature forage?
What is the CF% (crude fiber) of a Poor Quality forage or a weathered-mature forage?
> 40% (greaterthan)
What are visual indicators of forage quality?
- 1. Color: green vs. yellowish brown
- 2. Amount of leaf as compared to stem
- 3. Presence or absence of seed head
- 4. Amount of weeds or trash that may affect palatability and thus, intake
What is the optimum body condition of a beef female at calving for optimal reproductive efficiency?
Body Condition Score (BCS) 6
At what body condition score will a female become anestrus? (will not cycle or exhibit estrus)
BCS 3 (body condition score) = anestrous
If a cow is a body score 6, how much weight must be lost for her to become a body score 5?
If a cow is a body score 4, how much weight must be gained for her to become a body score 6?
What is post-partum interval?
The time that it takes for a cow to breed after haveing calved?
How many days after calving (post-partum interval) should a female in body condition score 6 require to exhibit estrus?
How many days after calving (post-partum interval) should a female in body condition score 4 require?
The body condition score of a group of beef females entering the breeding season is the best indicatorof what reproductive trait?
Determining conception rate during the breeding season.
The production cycle of a beef cow can be divided into four unique periods. Which two peroids are the most critical nutritionally?
- 1. Late Gestation: lasts 60-70 days in length
- 2. Early Lactation: lasts 70-80 days
Why is Late Gestation a critical period in beef cattle production.
- 1. Post partum interval: energy an dprotein levels influence the days from claving to first observed estrus
- 2. Colostrum production: is increased or decreased based on BCS of female
- 3. Major fetal development: during last 60 days of gestation.
Why is Early Lactation a critical period in beef cattle production?
- 1. Post-partum interval: time from birth to estrus (breeding)
- 2. Lactation: greatest nutrient reuirement
What are problems caused by "nutritional shortage" during late gestation and early laction within beef cattle?
- 1. Delayed breeding
- 2. Poor conception rate
- 3. Poor calf performance
What type of responce will a high protein (30-40%) all natural protein composed primarily of soybean meal, cottonseedmeal, sunflower meal or ther plant proteins plus added energy sources, minerals and vitamins have on forage intake?
Nitrogen requirement of ruminal microorganisms satisfied due to ruminal degredation of portein source:thus, increasing ruminal microorgnism numbers which increases forage degestibility resulting in positive associative effect(increased forage intake)
What type of a response will a High Energy; Low protein (20%) All natural protein composed primarily of cereal grains and natural plant proteins plus added energy sources, minerals and vitamins have on an animal?
Forage digestibility is decreased resulting in negative associative effect (decreased forage intake)
What type of a response will a High Energy: Low protein (20%) all natural protein composed promarily of by-product feeds and natural plant proteins plus added energy sources, minerals and vitamins have on beef cattle?
Increased energy intake without detrimental effect on forage digestibility.
What type of a response will a Moderate Curde Portein (20-30%) with added cruede protein equivalent from non-protein nitrogen. Supplement is primarily molasses-based with varying amounts of non-protein nitrogen in the form of urea, plant porteins, by-product feeds and added minerals and vitamins have on beef cattle.
Ruminal absorption of excessive ammonia nitogen due to rapid breakdown resultin in poor utilizaion of available nitrogen and dercreased microbial proten synthesis