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- or double-wordedness.
- It refers to the fact that every word presupposes another word that precedes it
- or anticipates it.
- Every word is therefore naturally dialogic by virtue of its existence in
- relation to other words.
- defining quality of language and its fundamental sense making
- It could also refer to the mixing of styles and intentions in political
- constantly position their utterances in relation to other texts or
- Varieties of language within political texts create their own settings as
- All varieties of language have the capacity to influence and change the
- positions of their users.
- The social and historical voices populating political texts are organized into
- a structured stylistic system that expresses the differentiated
- socio-ideological positions of political actors.
- The political context can refract, add to, or in some cases subtract meaning
- from an utterance.
- Political discourse is synchronically informed by contemporary languages,
- styles, and registers, and diachronically informed by their historical roles
- and the future roles we anticipate for them.
Both notions rely on allusion, parody, restatements and quotations.
- Texts and discourses are intertextual because they echo, allude, and parody
- each other.
- They do so because by their very nature, they are polyphonic and not because they
- necessarily subscribe to some meta-text.
- Hybridity encompasses both cultural and verbal characteristics of discourse
- whereas intertextuality emphasizes the verbal,
- the cognitive, and the textual alone.
- Hybridity implies the intermingling of linguistic and/or cultural traits from
- different social and historical backgrounds.
Written statements of political parties’ policies and beliefs. Manifestos publicly display a political party’s intentions, motives and beliefs. The language used in political manifestos tend to be persuasive and are typical of political speeches
Language of Manifestos
- (a) Rhetorical, that is, they involve the art of using persuasive discourse. The political actors choose issues that are tellable, listenable, attract attention (called soundbites.) and cause an audience to accept it happily. Thus, the content is carefully chosen to make it context sensitive.
- (b)Parallelism: phonic, syntactic, semanticRepeating a sound, a stretch (phrase, clause, sentence) three times.
- Semantic parallelism: using words from the same semantic field.
- (c) Contrastive Pairs or Antithesis: Using a two-part utterance in which the parts are in opposition.
- (d)Intertextuality: reference to faith and believe systems and to the Bible.
- (e) Political Prounouns
- personal/impersonal, metonymic reference, closeness and distancing, Personal involvement, Accepting responsibility and giving agency to actions (showing who does what.)Being in touch with the whole country (closeness).Willingness to share blame, responsibility, fame, etc. with others.Multiple and Ambiguous Pronoun Reference
- (f)Semantically Dense, Strong as well as Emotionally Valent Vocabularies
- (g) The Number Game
- (h) Play on words
- (i) Abstract words that have positive qualities
- (j) Temporal cohesion: linking past and present (k) strong positive view of party or country's future
Personal Pronouns: e.g. I, you, he/she, we, you, they
Possessive pronouns: e.g., my, mine, your, yours, his, hers, their, theirs-
- Demonstrative Pronouns: e.g., this,
- Interrogative Pronouns: who, which,
- whom e.g.,
- Who fought for prescription drugs for seniors?
- Reflexive Pronouns: myself, yourself,
- himself, herself, themselves,-
- Indefinite Pronouns: anyone, one,
- Relative Pronouns: who, whom, which,
- e.g., the politician who lives in Washington
- Resumptive/Shadow Pronouns: him, her,
- them e.g.,
- The Liberals, we know them.
- Those Conservatives, we know them very well.
- For example, the opposition
- between "Us" and "Them" may be for polarization of ingroups
- and outgroups.-
- In congress or senate debates, use of such pronouns helps to establish who
- exactly are being referred to when speakers use a contextual pronoun such as
- 'We', 'Them', 'They'.
- The group identities the
- pronouns presuppose may vary from one speech to another, or even within
- speeches, depending on the kind of the expression of he various social
- identities of the speaker.
- In political discourse, it is possible for specific personal pronouns to be
- used to index referents other than the ones conventionally associated with a
- particular form.
- The pronoun switches may
- occur in face-threatening encounters like insinuating or criticizing other
- people, drawing attention to social or political problems, complaining about an
- antisocial act, and avoidance.
- Intertextuality may also be effected through the interaction of the
- content of the text and the public knowledge from which that text has been
- Historical events in the society, politicians' ideology and policies as well as
- politicians' life histories all influence political texts.
Political texts tend to be generally accessible, and are thus conventionalized.
They are neither mere labels, autonomous, nor closed.
- Merely studying a political text structure may not provide any insights into
- their real hidden meaning.
A political text is a meeting point of different texts.
- To fully understand political texts, one must not detach them from their
- overall contexts since the context within which the texts are created and used
- help in their interpretation.
- Substitution: not same word, but same entity
- Ellipsis: part of sentence removed, depend on first for completeness
- Lexical cohesion
- Conjuction: how sentences adhere and progress
- -temporal: proceeds through time
- -additive: more information
- -adjunctive: contrastive, paradoxal
- -causal: if/then
- information or knowledge, personal experience and observation, hearsay,
- the media, the courts, experts or scholarship, about political parties or
- politicians and political issues.
Evidentiality has variable implications for the credibility of the speaker.
- Nationalism: the movement for political and
- socio-economic independence.
- Nationism: indicates efforts focused on establishing a modern and efficient
- Ethnic group: a community that may be politically
- and socio economically dependent on a dominant group.
- Primordialist View: ethnicity is fixed once and for
- Essentialist View: ethnicity is given, like sex and
- bodily features, acquired by heredity and only mildly malleable thereafter.
- Abstracted/Imagined View (Benedict Anderson;
- Jenkins 1997): ethnicity is imagined in that most members will never interact
- with each other face to face.
- purported kinship (Max Weber): biological
- inheritance of widely shared cognitive, affective, and physical characteristics
- that purportedly make for unique differences between one group and another.
- Paul James: a person can be institutionally naturalized as a
- national, whereas one still has to be born into ethnicity.
More ethnicity, language, and social
- Nation/State/Country: Political forms characterized
- by unity and independence. It is of a geographic import, etc.
- social identity refers to that part of an individual’s self concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership in
- a social group(s) together with the values and emotional significance attached
- to that membership.
- -Social Identity derives from several sources: nationality, ethnicity, social
- class, community, gender
- Language is however not coterminous with patriotism.
- Braudel: nationality marked solely by language