School Methods Exam 1
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Which two states were the first to offer education about speech?
Iowa and Wisconsin
The 21st century has brought about a shift from ______ to _____ _____
manufacturer to service industry
School-based SLP responsibilities
- Program Design
- Data Collection and Analysis
- 4th- independent readers
- 7th- switching classes, taking notes, seveal assignments
- 10th-competent independent writers
First state to offer free and appropriate public education
free appropriate public education
Child labor laws prevented...
children from working in factories so they could go to school
1910 saw the recognition of...
hadicapping conditions...but no enforced laws
WWI and WWII impacted schools beacause...
- no funds to pay teachers
- women working in factories
What happened with many handicapped children in the 1940's?
institutionalized or stayed at home instead of recieving an education
Association for Retarded Children
Two critical events for education in the 1950's
Brown v. The Board of Education
seperate is not equal
first black student in white school
Parents of Children with Disabilities
- Elementary and Secondary Education Act- 1965
- offered federal funds (grants) for districts to use to boost/support students struggling with reading or math
This federal law offered federal funds (grants) for districts to use to boost/support students struggling with reading or math. Funds went unclaimed.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The first educationally-related Federal
Bureau of Education for the Handicapped
- -education of handicapped act
- -first version of IDEA
- -identified minimum requirements for states to follow in order to receive federal funds.
- -participation was voluntary
Bureauof Education for the Handicapped changed their name to ___________________ because _______________
- The US Dept of Education
- It no longer included the term "handicapped" so it was more accepted
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) 3 major programs:
- 1.OSEP: Office of Special Education
- 2.RSA: Rehabilitation Services
- 3.NIDRR: National Institute of Disability
- Rehabilitation Research
PARC stands for ______ ________ _______ _____ and wanted ____________in PARC v. Commonwealth of PA.
PA Association for Retarded Children (parents)
- 1.Free education
- 2. Appropriate education in which parent and child had say and input
- -After losing, PA had to go door to door to find children not being educated
-Protects employees from discrimination based on their disability. Employer must make reasonable accommodation but not suffer undue hardship.
-Cannot exclude or deny individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to receive program benefits or services for which they are otherwise entitled to or qualified for.
The Rehabilitation Act- Section 504
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
- -Written to protect ALL students
- -specifies parental rights to documents and information
- -Specifies what can and cannot be shared with students, parents, other teachers
- Education for all Handicapped Children Act- 1974
- -Parental involvement
- -Mandated services
- -Identification of ALL children with disabilities
- -Evaluation required
- -least restrictive environment
EAHCA revisions/extensions- 1986
- birth to 3
- 3 to 5
- additional disorders added
- recognition of quality providers
- created IFSP
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
- PL 101-476 IDEA
- Person-first language
- Added two new categories (Autism and TBI)
- PL 105-17 Revisions
- Transition services
- More school responsibilities (often not wanted)
- P.L. 108-446 IDEA of 2004
- Eligibility criteria
revision of Elementary and Secondary Education Act
No Child Left Behind
No Child Left Behind- 2001
- district power to manage curriculum/funding
- expanded parental voice with financial power
- accountability for funds provided
- expectation of progress
- curriculum must be based on scientific research
Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA)
The Rehabilitation Act
- Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
Education For All Handicapped Children Act (EHC)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
EAHCA--->IDEA 1990 ---> IDEA 1997 ---> IDEA 2004
Common Core State Standards
CCSS seek to ensure what?
- consistency across states
- same content knowledge
- student success on HS graduation with common knowledge/skills ready for college and employment
start with standards and create goals to bring the child up to standards
create the goals for the child then identify which standards are the best match
standard aligned system
student achievmet- standards, assessment, curriculum framework, instruction, materials & resources, safe & supportive schools
How many standards are there?
- 1.First number- Subject Area
- 2. Second number- Standard Area
- 3.Third number- Grade Level
- 4.Letter-Organizing Category
establish what all students need to know and be able to accomplish at each grade level.
key measurements within each standard used as targets to assure student learning
identified and span content areas and grade designations. They are declarative statements of enduring understanding for all students at all grades/courses
provides a list of the content necessary for student to achieve the competencies for their grade or course.
provides a list of culminating demonstrations for the entire grade or course. They are what a student should be able to do to demonstrate mastery.
- Specifically Designed Instruction
- includes what the student needs according to your assessment and clinical judgment
- what when and where
•Seek to make an overall judgment of progress at the end of a defined period of instruction
•Occur at the end of a school level, grade, or course
•Are administered at certain grades for
purposes of state or local accountability
•Considered high-stakes assessments
•Results are often used in conjunction
with No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
•Designed to produce clear data on the
student's accomplishments at key points in his or her
•Examples of summative assessment: PSSA,Terra Nova
sum of your knowledge
•Assessments are _____when the information is used to…
–adapt instructional practices
–meet individual student needs
–provide individual students corrective feedback
–"reach" set goals and targets
•Monitor student gains toward reaching goals
•Are developed to meet the individual needs of their students and attainment of their goals
feedback & ongoing
answer the question what
What standards have the students achieved?
What standards have not yet been met?
What standards are not being addressed?
• an efficient measure for predicting success on state achievement tests, as well as for screening students for possible placement in remediation programs
•assessments provide accountability at the classroom level
•The question that is answered is why?
Determine the why - by breaking benchmarks down into fundamental skills and analyzing patterns of achievement across multiple measures
Why are there errors?
• suggest instructional strategies that will help individual students and enables the teacher to adjust the curriculum
•Example: Goldmann Fristoe
- Response to instruction and intervention
- •A comprehensive, multi-tiered intervention standards-aligned strategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at academic or behavioral risk.
- few students- intervention
- some students- intervention
- all students- foundation
6 components of IDEA
- Identification/Parental Permission
- Program Planning
- Procedural Safeguards
asks three Yes/No questions:
Does this child need to be assessed?
Does the concern justify the time and the expense of assessment?
Does the concern appear to be a cultural difference or a developmental disorder?
- Principle #1
- Identification/Parental Permission
involve and include the child;
be tailored to the child, NOT a dx. label;
be done by a multidisciplinary team created for this particular child based on his/her evaluation needs.
Principle #2: Evaluation
asks the questions:
What are the unique characteristics of this student/child?
Based on these unique characteristics, what are the specific
needsof this student/child?
Individualize the plan by specifying all necessary:
Related services and
Modifications and accommodation
Parents participate but professionals make treatment decisions.
Principle# 3: Program Planning
asks these questions
Is there any reason that this child cannot be instructed in the regular education classroom?
If so, could this child be instructed in the regular education classroom if additional support i.e., accommodations or modifications, were provided?
If curriculum modifications still do not allow this child to be instructed in the regular education classroom, which alternative placement would be least restrictive
Goal—max growth/learning for child.
Principle #4: Placement
NO exceptions to a FREE appropriate
public education. This includes:
related service -something required in order for the student to benefit from special education (example: visual aids,* hearing aid, transportation, etc.)
will not determine amount of service provided
Principle # 5: Funding (FAPE)
notices to parents
control over records
- Principle #6:
- Procedural Safeguards “Due Process” of the law
parents are to receive invitation to IEP meeting this many days before meeting
number of days to write IEP
who must be present in an IEP meeting?
- child >14
- regular ed teacher
- special ed teacher or related
- representative of school district- funding
Notice of Recommended Educational Placement
What would you like to do?
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