Test 2 Micro (Ppts 1-2)

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Test 2 Micro (Ppts 1-2)
2012-10-23 17:14:36
Bacterial Anatomy Growth

Bacterial Anatomy, Bacterial Growth
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  1. Ability of bacteria to move into normally sterile tissue sites.
  2. Ability of bacteria to cause disease
  3. A measure of pathogenicity
  4. Bacterial products that allow the bacteria to damage the host and cause disease
    Virulence factors
  5. 3 domains of life?
    Which one contains the nonmicrobes?
    • Bacteria, Eukarya, Arachae
    • Non-microbes are eukarya (obviously...think plants, etc.)
  6. Membrane lipids of archaea are linked by?
    Ether bonds (Bacteria and Eukarya have ester-linked)
  7. Which domains have:
    1)  80S ribosome?
    2)  Internal membranous organelles?
    3) Poycistronic mRNA?
    4) mRNA editing?
    5)  Muramic acid in cell wall?
    • 1)  Eukarya
    • 2)  Eukarya
    • 3)  Bacteria, Archaea
    • 4)  Eukarya
    • 5)  Bacteria
  8. Gram Stain
    • 1)  Fix bacteria to microscope
    • 2)  Crystal violet
    • 3)  Gram's iodine (mordant)
    • 4)  Decolorize (alcohol or acetone)
    • 5) Safranin Red
  9. Which bacteria are the only ones that have sterols in their cytoplasmic membrane?  How do they get them?  Why do they need them?

    They are more resistant to?
    Mycoplasma have sterols in the cytoplasmic membrane.  They lack a cell wall so they steal sterols from host to strengthen their membrane.

    Mycoplasma are more resistant to disinfectants and drying.
  10. Murein =
    • Cell wall or PPG
    • Composed of glycan strands and peptide cross-links
  11. Stem peptide for PPG unit?
    NAM (N-acetylmuramic acid)
  12. How does lysozyme disintegrate the cell wall?
    Cleaves the B-1,4 cross-link between NAG and NAM
  13. Park's Nucleotide
    UDP-NAM-PEP (after D-ala-D-ala is added)
  14. D-ala-D-ala dipeptide is added together in the last step of UDP-NAM polymerization.  Do these steps require ATP?
  15. Bactoprenol Phosphate (C55)
    Lipid carrer in the cytoplasmic membrane
  16. Transglycosylases connect?
    Transpeptidases connect?
    These are also known as?
    • Transglycosylases connect the dissacharides
    • Transpeptidases connect the stem peptides
    • Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs)
  17. UDP- NAG forms
    UDP-NAM (look at slide 20)
  18. Beta-lactams mimic
    D-ala-D-ala terminus of stem peptides.

    When PBPs bind Beta-lactams, they are acylated in their Ser active site and irreversibly inactivated.
  19. Glycopeptides are used to treat?  (G-P or G-N)
    How do they work?
    • Glycopeptides are used to treat G-Positives (Act on cell wall and can't penetrate outer membrane of G-Negatives).
    • Bind the D-ala-D-ala terminus, shut down transpeptidation rxns.
  20. What links the PPG and outer membrane of Gram-Ns?
  21. LPS
    Toxic component?
    Used for serological identifcation?
    • Endotoxin (represent outer leaflet of outer membrane)
    • Lipid A is the toxic component
    • "O" antigens used for serological identification
  22. Mutations in the porin genes can change
    The permeability of a given porin to an antibiotic, thus conferring some protection for the bacteria
  23. 1) Pili inhibit _______
    1) complement
  24. UEPC has two types of pili:
    Which one is associated with pylonephritis?
    • P-pilus: Binds galactose and glycosphingolipids in ueroepithelial mucosa and renal tissues.  Associated w/ pyelonephritis)
    • Type 1 pilus:  Binds mannose on Uroplakin 1a in the bladder, express in renal tissue
  25. What type of bacteria usually lack flagella?
  26. Monotrichous
    One flagellum at pole
  27. Lophotrichous
    One tuft of flagella at pole
  28. Amphitrichous
    Flagella at both poles
  29. Peritrichous
    Flagella all around the cell
  30. Axial filaments
    • Spirochete flagella that wrap around the cell.  Impart screw like motility (eukaryote flagella have whip-like motions).
    • Allow bacteria to penetrate viscous material like mucous.
  31. Two bacteria classes that produce spores?
    Bacillus and Clostridium
  32. Spore within bacterial cell?
  33. Development of dorman spore into a metabolically active vegetative cell?
  34. Spore layers:
    • Exosporum (Outer)
    • Coat(s)
    • Cortex
    • Inner Membrane
    • Core (Inner)
  35. Exosporum
    Outer layer of spore.  Membrane remaining after formation.
  36. Coat:
    Impervious to
    • Keratin-like protein w/ S-S bonds
    • Impervious to UV and ionizing radiation
  37. Cortex
    Concentric rings of PPG
  38. Which layer of the spore resembles the cytoplasmic membrane?
    Inner Membrane
  39. 1) 3 Nutritional Types of Bacteria?
    Which one uses organic compounds as its Carbon source?
    Which one oxidizes  inorganic compounds?
    • Hetrotrophic/organotrophic, Photosynthetic, Autotrophic/lithotrophic
    • Hetrotrophic oxidzies organic compounds
    • Autotrophic oxidizes inorganic compounds
  40. All bacteria causing human disease is thought to be?
  41. Which bacteria require water and nitrogen?
  42. Heterotrophs in certain temperatures:
    1)  Psychorophiles:
    2) Mesophiles:
    3)  Thermophiles
    • 1) -15 to 20 C
    • 2) 20 to 45 C
    • 3) 45 to 122 C

    Mesophiles grow at human body temperature
  43. Substrate-level Phosphorylation:
    Hexose (6-C) --> Pyruvate (3-C)
    In this process, 2 things happen.  What are they?
    Problem?  What is done about it?
    • ADP--> ATP
    • NAD reduced to NADH

    NAD is limited, but fermentation (pyruvate -> lactate) helps w/ this by oxidizing NADH back to NAD.
  44. What regenerates NAD for substrate level phosphorylation in heterophiles?
  45. Fermentation is the sole means of energy generation for many ____
  46. Streptococcus mutans produces ______ that is responsible for dental caries?
    Lactic acid

    S. mutans in normal flora that causes disease in its usual niche.
  47. This bacteria generates energy only by fermentation and is responsible for the H2 gas in gas gangrene.
    Clostridia (e.g. Clostridium perfringens)
  48. Which produces more energy for heterophilic bacteria?
    1)  Pyruvate entering the TCA/Krebs cycle
    2)  NADH entering the ETC
    • Pyruvate entering the TCA/Krebs = 2 ATP
    • NADH entering the ETC = 38 ATP (via Proton Motive Force)
  49. What part of the bacteria has the ETC?
    Cytoplasmic membrane
  50. Cytoplasmic membrane pumps
    Protons to ____
    Which creates an ____
    This generates the ____ which is used to do work
    • Protons to exterior
    • Which creates an H+ voltage gradient
    • This generates the PMF which is used to do work
  51. ATP Motor:
    External protons enter the _____ and bind to a _____
    Rotor is made up of? What does it do?
    Rotation of "y" unit in center induces _______
    • External protons enter the alpha unit and bind to a c-ring subunit
    • Rotor = c-ring and y unit.  It turns and ejects protons internally.

    • Rotation of "y" unit in center induces conformational change in catalytic sites
    • Causes synthesis of ATP
  52. How many hydrogens are required per revolution of flagella?
    256 H+
  53. Vibrio cholerae uses a flagella driven by what?
    Sodium-driven outside of human host, but proton driven during infection
  54. What is the difference btw aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
    Oxygen is not the terminal acceptor in anaerobic respiration.
  55. Uses oxygen when it is present, but can grow without it.
    Facultative anaerobe
  56. Does not grow in presence of oxygen, oxygen can be lethal.
    Obligate (strict) anaerobe
  57. Does not use oxygen for growth, but prefers low levels.
    Aerotolerant (these species are strictly fermentative)
  58. Can use oxygen for growth, but prefers low levels.
    Microaerophiles (low levels= micro levels)
  59. Requires oxygen for growth.
    Obligate (strict) aerobe
  60. What 3 enzymes do obligate anaerobes not have?
    What do these enzymes do?
    • Superoxide Dismutase
    • Catalase
    • Peroxidase

    These enzymes detoxify oxygen radicals
  61. Streptococci lack ____ and are ____
    Catalase, aerotolerant
  62. What differentail medium is used to determine the oxygen relationships of bacteria?
    Thioglycolate medium (colorless = anaerobic; green/blue = aerobic = methylene blue)

    Slide 25
  63. Tubulin-like protein that assembles as a ring of filaments (Z-ring) at mid-cell
  64. Proteins that ensure the Z-ring forms at mid-cell
    • MinCDE
    • MinCD: Prevents FtsZ from forming at poles
    • MinE: Prevents MinCD from forming at mid-cell
  65. Constricts the dividing bacterium -> formation of a septum and separation of daughter cells.
  66. Mutation in what can lead to a "minicell"
    Genes encoding the Min proteins (allows Z-ring to form at inappropriate site)
  67. Do bacteria engulf food particles?
    How are they transferred across the cell?
    No, they are digested externally and tranferred across the cell via Passive Transport System (membrane-spanning, barrel-sshaped components w/ external receptors.)  These are present in both membranes of a Gram-N bacteria.
  68. Active transporters include?
    • Antiporters and Symporters
    • Proline uses a Proline-H Symporter
  69. The witholding of nutrients to prevent bacterial growth?
    Nutritional immunity
  70. Iron Acquisition Systems (key bacterial virulence factors):
    • 1)  Siderophore Systems (low MW iron-chelating complexes secreted by bacteria that have a higher affinity for Fe than transferring, lactoferrin, or ferritin)
    • 2) Transferrin & Lactoferrin Receptors
    • 3) Heme Acquisition Systems
  71. Host antimicrobial peptide that binds siderophore-iron complexes to prevent internalization.
  72. Which bacterial secretion system is found only in pathogens?
    Type III Secretion System
  73. Which bacterial secretion systems are ATP Binding Cassettes ( ABC transporters)?
    Type I Secretion Systems (export things to periplasm)
  74. Bacteria regulate their metabolism by two ways:
    • 1)  Regulate enzyme activity
    • 2)  Regulate enzyme synthesis
  75. Planktonic growth
    Free-living cell
  76. Biofilm growth
    Life in a community (attached to a surface, encased in a matrix)
  77. Stages of Bacterial Growth
    • Lag
    • Log
    • Stationary
    • (Death)
  78. Stages of biofilm formation
    • Surface attachment
    • Development of matrix
    • Dispersion/metastasis
  79. Cells in a biofilm are ______ different from planktonic cells.
    physiologically (gene expression differs)
  80. What two bacteria form a biofilm infection of prosthetic joints?
    Staph aureus and epidermidis
  81. Bacterially secreted peptides that inhibit growth or kill other bacteria, the producing bacteria are immune.