Biology-Psych Chap 6

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Biology-Psych Chap 6
2012-11-19 23:08:30
Biology Psych Chap

Biology-Psych Chap 6
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  1. To set in motion. A set of factors that initiate, sustain and direct behaviors
  2. A complex behavior that is automatic and learned and occurs in all the members of a species
  3. The body maintains a condition of homeostasis in which any particualr system is in balance or equillibrum
    Drive Theory
  4. External stimuli such as smells or sights motivate behavior, as well as internal drives
    Incentive Theory
  5. People behave in ways that keep them at their preferred level of excitation
    Arousal Theory
  6. The internal thermostat is found in this area of the hypothalamus which contains seperate warmth-sensitive and cold-sensitive cells
    Preoptic area
  7. Occurs when the fluid content decreases inside the cells
    Osmotic thirst
  8. Occurs when the blood volume level drops due to a loss of extracellular water
    Hypovelemic thirst
  9. In this area, the reduced water content of cells that contributes to osmotic thirst is detected and induces drinking
    Organum vasculosum lamina terminails (OVLT)
  10. The part of the hypothalamus that induces drinking
    Median preoptic nucleus
  11. The body’s ability to maintain a condition at a specific level (such as temperature, blood sugar level, or water content)
  12. This area signals the reduced blood volume in the heart that accompanies hypolvolemia in the medulla
    Nucleus of the Solitary tract (NST)
  13. The satisfaction of appetite that terminates a drive
  14. The more one eats a particular food, the less appealing it becomes
    Sensory-specific satiety
  15. Avoidance of foods that are associated with illness or poor nutrition. Avoidance may follow a single exposure
    Learned taste aversion
  16. Desiring a food associated with some benefit; the association is actually attached to the flavor of the food containing the nutrient.
    Learned taste preferences
  17. A place in the small intestines where most digestion takes place
  18. Products that are broken down are transported to the liver by this section
    Hepatic portal vein
  19. A hormone that enables the body cells to take up glucose for energy and certain cells to store excess nutrients
  20. The kidneys release this hormone which increases production of angiotesin II
  21. The Absorptive phase
    During this phase, glucose levels rises which stimulates the realease of insulin. Our body uses the nutrients arriving from the digestive system while insulin stores glucose into the cells
  22. The Fasting Phase
    During this phase, glucose levels fall and the body must rely on stored nutrients. Glycerol is converted to glucose.
  23. Initiates eating and regulates different aspects of metabolism
    Lateral Hypothalamus and Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN)
  24. The body's main source of energy, reserved for the nervous system during the fasting phase; a major signal for hunger and satiation
  25. The form in which glucose is stored in the liver and muscles during the absorptive phase; converted back to glucose for the brain during the fasting phase
  26. A hormone released by the the pancreas that stimulates the liver to transform stored glycogen back into glucose during the fasting phase
  27. A breakdown product of fats, which is converted to glucose for the brain during the fasting period
  28. A peptide released by the stomach during fasting, which initiates eating.
  29. An insulin disorder in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin resulting in over-eating with little weight gain
    Type 1 Diabetes
  30. The body's tissues are unresponsive to glucose
    Type 2 Diabetes
  31. A peptide hormone released when food passes into the duodeum. Acts as a signal to the brain that reduces meal size
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  32. An appetite-supressing hormone released in the intestines in response to food
    Peptide YY
  33. A hormone secreted by fat cells, which is porportional to the percentage of body fat and which signals fat level to the brain
  34. The amount of energy required to fuel to the brain and other organs and to maintain body temperature
    Basal metabolism
  35. A eating disorder in which the individuals starves themselves and food intake is restricted at a minimum
    Anorexia nervosa
  36. An eating disorder that involves binging on food, followed by purging through vomiting and using laxatives
    Bulemia nervosa
  37. Ectothermic 
    Animals such as snakes or lizards that are unable to regulate their body temperature
  38. Endorthermic
    Mammals that are able to manipulate their environment to control temperature. They also have internal functions that allow them to regulate body temperature