Nervous system and cells

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Nervous system and cells
2012-10-23 16:56:14
ap psychology

neurons and stuff chapter 3
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  1. glia?
    • glue
    • purpose is structural support, nourishment and insulation
  2. what does the glia help to do?
    maintain chemical environment in neuron
  3. receive, integrate, and transmit info
  4. cell body that contains chemical components
  5. dendrites?
    receives information
  6. True or false? no two neurons ever touch
  7. transmits info away from soma to other neurons
  8. axon is wrapped in?
    myelin sheath
  9. myelin sheath?
    glial cells that insulate and speeds transmission of signals
  10. terminal buttons?
    • located at the end of the axon
    • release neurotransmitters that transmit messages to neighboring neurons
  11. synapse?
    • the space where messages are passed from 1 neuron to another
    • aka junction
  12. stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive?
    resting potential
  13. how many millivolts in resting potential?
  14. change in voltage allows message to be transmitted?
    action potential
  15. the neural impulse is an ?
    all or none law
  16. where does transmission take place?
  17. synaptic cleft?
    a gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
  18. presynaptic neuron?
    neuron that send a signal across the gap
  19. postsynaptic neuron?
    received the signal
  20. synaptic vesicles?
    where chemicals are stored in small sacs
  21. PSP's do not follow?
    the all or none law
  22. 2 types of messages sent from cell to cell?
    • excitatory
    • inhibitory
  23. excitatory psp?
    a positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials
  24. inhibitory psp?
    negative voltage shift that describes the likelihood that the PS neuron will fire action potentials
  25. reuptake?
    process in which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed
  26. what works like a lock and key?
    • neurotransmitters
    • *only certain ones can bind with the other
  27. a neuron receives stimulation on the parts known as?
  28. when the neuron is stimulated, channels in the membrane ____ and ___ ___ ___ ___ flush into the cell
    • open
    • postiviely charged sodium ions
  29. when the ions enter the neuron, the charge of the neuron changes from its ____ potential of ____ millivolts to a _____ ___
    • resting
    • -70
    • negative voltage
  30. the change in voltage causes an ____ ____ to be created
    action potential
  31. the impulse travels down the ____ toward the ____ ____
    • axon
    • terminal buttons
  32. when the action potential reaches the teminal buttons, the ____ ____ fuse with the membrance and ________ spill into the _____ ____
    • synaptic vesicles
    • neurotransmitters
    • synaptic cleft
  33. The neurotransmitters bind to _____ ____ on the receiving neuron.
    receptor sites
  34. the sites work like a ____ and ____
    lock and key
  35. this creates a _____ _____ in the receiving neuron which can either be _____ or ____
    • PSP
    • positive (excitatory)
    • negative( inhibitory)
  36. after the neurotransmitters bind with the receptor sites, the excess neurotransmitters will be reabsorbed into the terminal buttons through a process called?
  37. the chemical messengers of the nervous system are?
  38. contributes to alzheimers
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  39. ACh effects?
    • attention
    • arousal
    • memory
  40. ACh is the only neurotransmitter between ___ ___ and ____ ___
    • motor neurons
    • voluntary muscles
  41. agonist?
    chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
  42. example of a agonist?
  43. antagonist?
    a chemical that  opposes that action of a neurotransmitter
  44. what do antagonists fail to cause?
    postsynaptic potentials
  45. what do antagonists block?
    the action of the natural neurotransmitter
  46. example of an ACh antagonist?
  47. How does curare work?
    It blocks action at the ACh synapses, and causes muscles to be unable to move
  48. SSRI?
    blocks reabsorbtion of serotonin in people with depression to elevate mood
  49. 3 monoamines?
    • dopamine
    • norepinephrine
    • serotonin
  50. dopamine helps control?
    voluntary muscles
  51. degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons can cause?
  52. serotonin helps regulate?
    • sleep
    • eating behaviors
    • aggressive behavior in animals
    • agression and impulsive behavior in humans
  53. what does NE and serotonin contribute to?
  54. schizophrenia is influence by what neurotransmitter?
  55. GABA and glycine only?
    produce inhibitory PSP's
  56. GABA influences?
    • the brain
    • central nervous system
    • anxiety
  57. morphine?
  58. endogenous?
    internally produced morphinelike substance
  59. endorphins regulate?
  60. oxytocin?
    • feel good hormone
    • impairs memory
  61. what triggers the production of oxytocin?
  62. when your not accessins a pathway enough/
    synaptic pruning