Body Structure

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Author:
rwilliams144
ID:
179404
Filename:
Body Structure
Updated:
2012-10-23 22:15:05
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blood lymph
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Description:
The Blood and Lymph System
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  1. how many RBC's (erythrocytes) 
    4.5-5 million per mm3 of blood
  2. how many WBC (leukocytes)
    5000-10000 per mmof blood
  3. WBC- granular leukocytes-granulocytes-polymorphonuclear or polys
    • neurtophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  4. picture
  5. WBC- nongranular leukocytes-- agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  6. how much platlets or thrombocytes?
    3000000 per mm3 of blood
  7. Plasma has what type of matrix
    Fluid// connective tissue
  8. function of blood?
    • Transportation-
    • carries oxygen and CO2
    • Carries nutrients
    •    glucose
    •    others
    • Protection
    •    defensive cells
  9. Formation of cells- homopoiesis
    • Myeloid tissue
    •    Red bone barrow
    •       hip bone
    •       sternum
    •       ribs
    •       RBC's, leukocytes, platlets-- STEM CELLS 

    • Lymphatic tissue
    •    lymph nodes
    •    thymus
    •    spleen
    •       1.lymphocytes
    •       2.monocytes
  10. stem cell photo
  11. RBC Structure
    • Structure
    •    dish shaped-- bi concave
    •       increase surface area
    • Without nuclei
    • Red pigment
    •    Hemoglobin
    •       requires iron for production
    •       ability to carry oxy and CO2
  12. RBC Function
    transports oxygen and CO2
  13. RBC related clinical conditions
    • Polycythemia
    •    too many
    • Anemia
    •    too few
    •       inadaquate number-- 
    •             hemorrhage/chronic bleeding
    •             bone marrow suppression- cancer treatment
    • Defiency of iron/hemoglobin
    • megaloblasic anemia
    •    def of folate
    • pernicious anemia
    •    def of vit b12, def of intrinsic factor
  14. RBC lab tests
    • RBC count- included in CBC
    •    4.5 -5 million per mmof blood

    • Hematocrit-HCT
    •    measure of the % of RBCs in relation to total blood volume

    • Hemoglobin- HGB
    •    measure of the total amt of HGB in peripheral blood
    •    Male- 14-18 g/dl
    •    Female- 12-16 g/dl
  15. WBC Function
    • Defense
    •    phagocytosis- phagocytes 
    •       neutrophils
    •       monocytes
    •    immune system function
    •       lymphocytes
    •    protection from allergies
    •       eosinophils
    •    enhanced inflammation, produce histimine and heparin
    •       basophils

  16. WBC clinical conditions
    • Leukocytosis- increase WBC
    •    normal reaction to infection
    • Leukopenia- decrease WBC
    •    bone marrow suppression- cancer therapy
    •    HIV
    • Leukemia
    •    increase WBC
    •    non functioning
    •    cancer
  17. WBC related lab tests
    • WBC- included on CBC-- 5-10,000 mm
    • Differential
    •    compares the number of granular leukocytes to nongranular leukocytes
  18. Platelets- Thrombocytes
    • Essential role in blood clotting(coagulation)
    • Prevent blood loss
    • Blood Clot Formation
    •    Damaged tissue/cells release clotting factors platelets aggregate- release clotting factors
    •    Clotting factors+Ca-- prothrombinase (prothrombin activator)
    •    prothrombinase+*prothrombin= thrombin
    •    thrombin+*fibrinogen= fibrin
    •    fibrin+enmeshed RBC's = blood clot
    • *-plasma proteins
  19. How the blood clots







  20. role of the liver and vit K
    • Liver produces plasma proteins
    •    fibrinogen
    •    prothrombin
    • Vit K is necessary for the liver to produce prothrombin
  21. Related clinical conditions to Platelets
    • Thrombus/ Thrombosis
    •    clot forms in unbroken vessel
    • Embolus/Embolism
    •    clot breaks loose and travels
    •    can go to the heart, lung, brain
  22. Platelets Lab test
    • platelet count
    •    included in CBC
    •    150,000-400,0000/ mm3
    • Prothrombin time- PT or Pro time
    •    often reported in INR
    •    normal- 11-12.5 sec or 85%-100%
    •    anticoagulant therapy-- coumadin
    •       1.5-2 times control value or 20%-30% of activity
    •       INR-- 2.0-3.5
    • Partial thromboplastin time- PTT
    •    60-70 sec
    •    activated partial thromboplastin time- aptt
    •    30-40 sec
    • anticoagulant therapy-- heparin-- 1.5-2.5 times control value in sec
  23. Plasma
    blood minus its cells
  24. Serum
    plaasma minus clotting factors contains anitbodies
  25. Composition of blood plasma
    • Water
    • Dissolved Sub
    •    electrolytes
    •    nutrients
    •    plasma proteins
    •       prothrombin- blood clotting
    •       fibrinogen- blood clotting
    •       albumin- osmotic pressure
    •       immunoglobulins- antibodies
  26. Amount of blood plasma
    • 4-6 L @half of the blood volume
    • 7-9% of bodt wt
    • Slightly alkaline
  27. Blood type-- A
    • type A antigens
    • anti B type antibodies
  28. Blood type--B
    • type B antigens
    • anti A type antibodies
  29. Blood type-- AB
    • universal recipient 
    • type A and B antigens
    • no antibodies
  30. Blood type-- O
    • universal donor
    • no antigens
    • both anti A and anti B type antibodies
  31. Blood types
  32. Blood transfusion reactions-- antigen antibody reaction
    Type II hypersensitivity 
    • IgM
    • antigens on surface of donor red blood cells react with recipient's antibodies
    • Agglutination
    • Can occur on inital contact
  33. Blood pairing
  34. Type I hypersensitivty
    • IgE
    • mild to anaphylactic shock
  35. Rh system
    • Rh+- contains Rh factor( antigen)
    • Rh- - does not contain Rh factor
    • Erythroblastosis fetalis
    •    ANTIBODIES FORM IN MATERNAL BLOOD (Rh-) IN RESPONSE TO BABY’S Rh + BLOOD
    •    PROBLEM IN SECOND AND SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCIES
    •    TREATMENT—RhoGAM—STOPS MOTHER’S BLOOD FROM MANUFACTURING ANTIBODIES
  36. Blood Type
    • Type AA
    •    AA
    •    AO
    • Type B
    •    BB
    •    BO
    • Type AB
    •    AB
    •    BA
    • Type O
    •    OO
    •    OO
  37. Hereditiy(Rh factor)
    • Rh
    •    +
    •       ++
    •       +-
    •    -
    •       --
    •       --
  38. Blood type matching photo
  39. Parts of Lymphatic system
    • Lymph
    • Lyphatic vessels
    • Lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • Tonsils
    • Spleen
  40. Function of Lymph system
    • Transportation
    •    Exchange of substance between blood and tissues occurs at the capillaries
    •    Some sub are too large to pass into capillaries
    •    These are absorbed by the lymphatic system
    •       fat- lacteals
    •       protein molecules
    • Proctection
    •    immune system
  41. Lymph
    • Blood plasma
    • Filtered out of capillaries
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Interstitial fluid
    • Enters lymplatic circulation lymph
  42. Lymphatic vessels
    • Blind ended tubes
    • Valves permit one way movement of lymph
    • No pump
    • Walls very porous
  43. Circulation of Lymph--
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
    • Ducts
    •    R Lymphatic duct
    •       drains upper right extremity and right side of head, neck, and upper torso
    •       empties into R subclavian
    •    Thoracic duct
    •       drains 3/4 of body
    •       empties in L subclavian
    •       cisterna chyli
    •          L thoracic duct
    •          abd
    •          resovoir 
    •    Lacteals
    •       found in ville if sm intestine
    •       absorb fatty acids
  44. Lymph node structure
    clusters of lymphatic tissue
  45. location of lymph nodes
    • strategic locations
    •    cervical
    •    axillary/brachial
    •    inguinal 
  46. Flow of lymph nodes
    • afferent vessels- 4
    • efferent vessels-1
  47. Function of lymph nodes
    • Defense
    •    contain fixed macrophages
    •    other cells
    • Formation of some WBC's
  48. Clinical implications for lymph nodes-- biological filtration
    • infection control
    • cancer surveillance
  49. Tymus Gland location and function
    • Mediastinum
    • Forms T cell
    • Thymosin

    Size decrease with age- involution
  50. Tonsils   
    • Masses of lymphoid tissue around the openings of the mouth and throat
    •    Palantine
    •       tonsils
    •       located on both sides of throat
    •    pharyngeal
    •       adenoids
    •       post opening of nasopharynx
    •    lingual tonsils near base of toungue
  51. Spleen
    • Largest organ of lymph sys
    • located in LUQ
    • Function
    •    phagocytosis
    •       bacteria
    •       Old RBC-- salvages iron
    •    storage for blood
    •    manf of lymphocytes
    • Ruptures
    •    blunt abd trauma
    • Spleenectomy
    •    removal
    •       risk of infection!

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