neurology

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XQWCat
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179435
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neurology
Updated:
2012-10-23 22:41:52
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anatomy lecture
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vet tech anatomy lecture, test 3, neurology
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  1. Functions of nervous system (5)
    • Initiate/reguate movement of body parts
    • regulate secretions of glands
    • gather information about external/internal environment
    • maintain an appropriate state of consciousness
    • stimulate thirst, hunger, fear, rage and sexual behaviors appropriate for survival
  2. 3 basic functions of nervous system
    • sensation (monitors change/events inside and out--stimuli and receptors)
    • integration (processing and interpretation of sensory info to determine response)
    • Reaction (motor output, activation of muscles or glands)
  3. stimuli
    changes inside or outside the body monitored by nervous receptors
  4. receptors
    usually dendrites, the cells of the nervous system that monitor stimuli
  5. nervous vs. endocrine system
    • similarities: both monitor stimuli and reast so as to maintain homeostasis
    • differences: NS is rapid and fast-acting, and the effects do not always perservere
    • ES acts slower via blood-borne chemical signals (hormones) and the effects are longer-lasting
  6. Order of nervous function
    • Sensory (afferent) division -- inputs sensation
    • Peripheral nervous system
    • (central nervous system) -- brain and spinal cord
    • Motor (efferent) division
    • .....Somatic nervous system (voluntary, skeletal)
    • .....Autonomic nervous system (involuntary--cardiac, smooth, gland)
    • ..........Sympathetic (fight or flight)
    • ..........Parasympathetic (slow and steady, homeostastis)
  7. Impulse classification in nervous system
    •  Sensory (afferent) system (toward CNS)
    • Integrating function (all inside CNS)
    • Motor (efferent) system (away from CNS)
  8. afferent
    sensory--toward CNS.  Body outside CNS. 
  9. efferent
    • motor, away from CNS.  Carry info from CNS to peripheral muscle, glands and/or other neurons.  Body inside CNS
    • Comes in 2 parts (somatic, automatic)
  10. somatic motor neuron
    1 efferent neuron, away from CNS
  11. autonomic motor neuron
    2 neurons (pre-ganglionic, post-ganglionic)
  12. neuroglia
    • helper-cells to nerves, structurally and functionally maintain. 
    • maintain myelin sheath, repair damage, metabolic support.
    • 50x more neuroglia than nerves.  Can divide
  13. Neuron
    functional unit of the nervous system.  Initates and conducts.  Needs lots of oxygen, can't reproduce.  Can regerate if the body is okay.
  14. 3 parts of a neuron
    • Cell body (soma or perikaryon)
    • dendrites
    • axons
  15. Neuron cell body or soma
    control center of neuron.  Synthesizes enzymes and other molecules essential to normal function.  Contain Nissl bodies (rough ER), golgi bodies, mitochondria, but no mitosis stuff. 
  16. Nissl bodies
    Rough ER in neuron cell body
  17. Nuclei
    groups of nerve bodies in the CNS (same as ganglia in PNS)
  18. Ganglia
    groups of nerve cell bodies outside brain in PNS (same as nuclei in CNS)
  19. Nerve process
    an arm-like extension emanating from every neuron.  2 kinds in a neuron: Axon and dendrite. 
  20. Dendrites
    recieve stimuli, or impulses, from other neurons and conduct this stimulation to cell body.  Ends of dendrites are receptors (modified).  Lots of branches into cell body. 
  21. Axon
    • conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body toward another neuron of an effector (single, long process, has neurofibrils but no nissl bodies).
    • Long process goes to neuron or effector organs (DO something)
  22. Axon hillock
    "neck" leading into axon
  23. Telodendrion synaptic knobs
    terminal bulb of axon tendrils
  24. axolemma
    axon plasma membrane
  25. Tracts or Fasciculi
    Bundles of nerve processes in CNS (like nerves, in PNS)
  26. Nerves
    Bundle of nerve processes in PNS (like tracts or fasciculi in CNS)
  27. Myelination
    Function is to increase speed of impulse conduction along the axon and to insulate the nerve process.  Neuroglia cell wrapped around axon or dendrite many times--myelinate fiber. 
  28. Oligodendrocytes
    myelin sheath in CNS (like Schwann cells in PNS)
  29. Schwann cells
    myelin sheath in PNS (like oligodendrocytes in CNS)

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