Procedures

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kortney21
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Procedures
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2012-12-26 18:58:47
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  1. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the lateral projection. If the pt is erect, it is important to place the midsagittal plane?
    parallel to the image receptor and vertical to the floor
  2. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. The pt is placed erect facing the image receptor w/ the arms flexed and the backs of the hands resting on the hips. This position of the arms is used to?
    Rotate the scapulae laterally away from the chest
  3. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the lateral projection. If the pt is erect, the central ray is directed horizontal to the horizontal to the floor to enter at the midcoronal plane at the level of the?
    seventh thoracic vertebra
  4. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the lateral projection. In order to demonstrate the apices free of superimposition with the shadows of the clavicles, the CR should be directed?
    Cephalic at an angulation of 10-15 degrees
  5. A radiographic image of he chest is obtained in the posterior (PA) projection. A 180 cm source-to-image receptor distance is employed in order to?
    Reduce the amount of magnification in the heart shadow
  6. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the rt lateral projection. This projection is most commonly taken to improve the visualization of lesions involving the?
    rt lung
  7. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. If the central ray is directed perpendicular to the image receptor, the resulting image is most likely to show the shadows of the clavicles?
    About 5cm below the apices of the lung
  8. Whenever possible, radiographic images of the chest should be performed with the pt erect in order to?
    Demonstrate the presence free fluids
  9. Which radiographic projection of the chest is most often used to evaluate the presence of free air in the left pleural cavity?
    An AP projection with the pt in the rt lateral decubitus position
  10. Two radiographic images of the chest are obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. Separate images are taken with the pt suspending their respiration at the end of full inspiration & one on full expiration. The projections are commonly used to evaluate?
    the excursion of the diaphragms
  11. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the PA oblique projection in the LAO position. The pt is placed with their left shoulder in contact with the images receptor & their rt hand on the hip. In order to demonstrate the heart & descending aorta, the pt should be rotated?
    45-60 degrees from the plane of the image receptor
  12. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projectio. Which body position and phase of respiration will move the diaphragms to their lowest position?
    The erect position with inspiration
  13. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. Unwanted rotation of the chest is best detected by evaluating the?
    Dimensions of the sternoclavicular jt spaces
  14. Which of the following radiographic projections is most often requested to provide the best demonstration of the left atrium?
    Right PA oblique projection in the RAO position
  15. A radiographic image of the trachea is obtained in the AP projection. The central ray should be directed perpendicular to the midsagittal plane and adjusted to enter at the level of?
    the manubrium
  16. Which projection of the chest is most commonly used for the demonstration of interlobar effusions and to give an unobstructed view of the pulmonary apices?
    AP axial (Lindholm) projection or lordotic
  17. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the PA oblique projection in the RAO position. The pt is placed w/ their rt shoulder in contact w/ the image receptor and their left hand on the hip. In order to demonstrate pulomanry diseases the pt should be rotated?
    45-60 degrees from the plane of the image receptor
  18. The projection of the chest that is commonly employed for the demonstration of free fluid in the costophrenic recess is the?
    PA projection with the pt erect
  19. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. With the pt erect, an adequate inspiratory effort is indicated by visualization of?
    10 pairs of ribs above the diaphragms
  20. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the lateral projection. With the pt erect in the left lateral position, the CR should be directed perpendicular to the midcoronal plane at the level of the?
    Seventh thoracic vertebra
  21. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posterioanterior (PA) projection. This projection is preferred over the AP projection bc?
    it places the heart closer to the image receptor
  22. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the posteroanterior (PA) projection. In order to demonstrate the maximum amount of lung tissue, the pt should be instructed to suspend respiration at the?
    End of the second breath inspiration
  23. A radiographic image of the chest is obtained in the PA oblique projection. With the pt in the LAO position the maximum area of the lung demonstrated is on?
    the left side of the thorax
  24. Aradiographic image of the chest is obtained in the AP projection. With the pt supine, the scapulae can be rotated away from the lung fields by?
    abducting the upper arms 90 degrees
  25. 5 least common diseases for chest?
    • berylliosis
    • aspergilosis
    • Interstitial lung disease
    • lymphangioleiomymatosis
    • legionnaires
  26. Common causes of pleural effusions?
    • heart failure
    • pulmonary embolism
    • cirrhosis
    • post open heart surgery
  27. Symptoms of pleural effusions?
    • shortness of breath
    • chest pain
    • fever
    • cough
  28. Exams to detect pleural effusions?
    • Cxr
    • CT scan
    • U/s of chest
    • Thoracentesis
  29. Treatment of Pleural effusions?
    • diuretics
    • therapeutic
    • thorancenteses
    • chest tube 
    • surgery
  30. Symptoms of gastritis?
    • loss of appetite
    • nausea
    • vomiting 
    • pain
    • black stool
  31. Causes of gastritis?
    • meds
    • drinking too much
    • infection w/helicobacter pylori
    • cocaine abuse
  32. Exams  for gastritis?
    • endoscopy
    • pylori test
    • CBC
  33. Symptoms of Dyspepsia?
    • vomiting
    • nausea
    • pain in lower as well as the upper abdomen
  34. 3 Most common diseases for the abdomen?
    • dyspepsia
    • Gastritis
    • pleural effusions
  35. Gastritis is?
    inflamed lining of the stomach
  36. Pleural effusion in?
    water in the lungs
  37. Display pixel size?
    pixel size of the monitor, related to the display matrix
  38. Display matrix?
    series of "boxes" that give form to the image
  39. Direct digital radiography (DR)
    A method of acquiring radiographic images digitally
  40. The ability of an imaging system to distinguish between similar tissues?
    contrast resolution
  41. The density difference on adjacent areas of a radiographic image?
    contrast
  42. A method of acquiring radiographic images digitally 
    Computed Radiography (CR)
  43. Center point of the xray beam (point of least distortion of projection image) is?
    Central Ray
  44. The intensity of light that represents the individual pixels in the image on the monitor?
    brightness
  45. Bit depth is determined by?
    the manufacturer & is based on the imaging procedures for which the equipment is required
  46. Representative of the numbers of shades of gray that can be demonstrated by each pixel?
    bit depth
  47. Highly complex mathematical formulas that are systematically applied to a data set for digital processing?
    Algorithms
  48. S in PACS stands for?
    System
  49. The specialized computer network that manages the complete system?
    System
  50. C in PACS stands for?
    Communication
  51. The raiting & displaying of the images?
    Communication
  52. A in PACS stands for?
    Archiving
  53. The "electronic" storage of the images?
    Archiving
  54. P in PACS means what?
    Picture
  55. The digital medical images?
    Picture
  56. PACS?
    Picture archivial communication system
  57. Main components of a CR system include?
    Photostimulable phosphor image plates, an image plate reader & a workstation
  58. Localizaion of lesions or foreign bodies requires a min of?
    2 images
  59. All fractures require a min of?
    2 projections; taken @ 90 degrees as near rt angles as possible
  60. When a jt is the area of interest; a min of _______ projections should be taken?
    3
  61. 2 types of cartilaginous jts?
    • symphyses
    • synchondroses
  62. gomphoses
    very limited movement
  63. Sutures?
    immovable
  64. Syndesmoses?
    slightly movable
  65. 3 types of fibrous joints?
    • syndesmoses
    • suture
    • gomphoses
  66. Diarthrosis?
    freely movable joint
  67. Amphiarthrosis?
    Joint with limited movement
  68. Synarthrosis?
    Immovable joint
  69. Does the male or female skeleton mature faster?
    female
  70. Process of epiphyseal fusion of the long bones occurs progressively from?
    age of puberty to full maturity; @ about 25 years f age
  71. Cartilaginous plates that are found between the diaphysis & each epiphysis until skeletal growth is complete?
    epiphyseal plates
  72. Each secondary center of ossification is called?
    an epiphysis
  73. Most secondary centers appear when?
    after birth
  74. Secondary centers of ossification appear where?
    near the ends of the limbs of long bones
  75. Diaphysis?
    primary center of ossification in growing bones
  76. 1st center of ossification?
    primary center
  77. Ossification that occurs when bone replaces cartliage?
    endochondral
  78. Ossification that occurs when bone replaces membranes?
    Intramembranous
  79. 2 types of bone formation?
    • intramembranous
    • endochondral
  80. Red blood cells are produced by?
    red bone marrow of certain flat & irregular bones such as sternum, ribs, vertebrae & pelvis, as well as the ends of the long bones
  81. RBCs?
    red blood cells
  82. The embryonic skeleton is composed of ______  _____ & _______ ________?
    fibrous membranes & hyaline cartilage
  83. Ossification begins @ about?
    the 6th embryonic wk & continues until adulthood
  84. Ossification?
    Process by which bones form within the body
  85. Describe Irregular bones? ex?
    bones that have peculiar shapes; vertebrae facial bones, bones of the base of the cranium & bones of the pelvis
  86. Flat bones make up? consist of?
    the calvarium, sternum,ribs, & scapulae; 2 plates of compact, bone with cancellous bone & marrow between them
  87. Short bones are found? Consist of?
    found only in the wrists & ankles; cancellous tissue with a thin outer covering of compact bone
  88. Long bones are found? Consist of?
    In the appendicular skeleton; body & two ends or extremities
  89. What are the 4 classifications of bones?
    • long bones
    • short bones
    • flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  90. Adult human skeleton is divided into what?
    • axial skeleton 
    • appendicular skeleton
  91. Arthrology?
    study of joints
  92. Osteology?
    study of bones
  93. What are the minimum number of ribs that must be demonstrated for a unilateral rib study above the diaphragm?
    1-9
  94. Hemothorax occurs when?
    trauma to the ribs
  95. Criteria that applies to a radiograph of oblique sternum?
    entire sternum should lie over the heart shadow & be adjacent to the spine
  96. Facial bone that forms the majority of the hard palate?
    maxilla
  97. If pituitary adenoma is in question & CT & MRI are not available; which radiographic projection or position would best demonstrate signs of erosion of the sella turcica bc of the tumor?
    lateral position
  98. What is the centering for a lateral projection of the sella turcica?
    3/4 in (2cm); anterior & inch (2cm) superior
  99. Which projections for sella turcica best visualizes the anterior clinoid processes?
    AP axial, CR 30degrees caudad to IOML
  100. Bone thats acts as a bridge between the cranial & facial bones; contributes to the floor of the cranium & contains optic canal & pterygoid processes
    sphenoid
  101. Which bone makes up the majority of the calvarium or skull cap?
    parietal
  102. Which cranial bone articulates with all the other cranial bones?
    sphenoid
  103. Which of the following factors is different between a lateral projection of the sella turcica & the cranium?
    CR centering
  104. Lowest level of organization in the human body?
    chemical level
  105. All chemicals necessary for maintaining life are composed of?
    atoms
  106. Atoms are joined in various ways to form what?
    molecules
  107. Various chemicals in the form of molecules are organized to form?
    cells
  108. The basic structural & functional unit of all living tissues?
    cell
  109. Cohesive groups of similar cells that together with their intercellular material, perform a specific function?
    tissues
  110. 4 basic types of tissues are?
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  111. Cover internal & external surfaces of the body; including the lining of vessels & organs such as stomach & the intestines~ this describes?
    Epithelial tissue
  112. Supportive tissues that bind together & support various structures?
    connective tissue
  113. Make up the sub. of a muscle?
    muscular tissue
  114. Make up the sub. of nerves & nerve centers?
    nervous tissue
  115. When complex assemblies of tissues are joined to perform a specific function?
    an organ
  116. Organs usually have?
    a specific shape
  117. Consists of a group or an association of organs that have a similar or common function?
    A system
  118. The 10 systems of the body when functioning together make up what?
    one living being
  119. 10 systems include?
    • skeletal
    • circulatory
    • digestive
    • respiratory
    • urinary
    • reproductive
    • nervous
    • muscular
    • endocrine
    • integumentary
  120. Skeletal system includes?
    206 separate bones; their association cartilages & joints
  121. Study of bones?
    osteology
  122. Study of joints?
    arthrology
  123. 4 functions of skeletal system?
    • support & protect many soft tissues of body
    • allow movement through interaction w/ muscles to form a system of levers
    • produce blood cells
    • store calcium
  124. Circulatory system is composed of?
    cardiovascular organs; lymphatic system
  125. Cardiovascular organs?
    • heart
    • blood
    • blood vessels
  126. Lymphatic system include?
    lymph nodes, lymph vessels,lymph glands & spleen
  127. 6 functions of circulatory system are?
    • distribute oxygen & nutrients to the cells of the body
    • carry cell waste & carbon dioxide from the cells 
    • transport water, electrolytes, hormones & enzymes
    • protect against disease
    • to prevent hemorrage by forming blood clots
    • help regulate body temp
  128. Digestive system includes?
    alimentary canal & certain accessory organs
  129. Alimentary canal is made up of?
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  130. Accessory organs of digestion include?
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  131. Functions of the digestive system?
    prepare food for absorption by the cells through numerous physical & chemical breakdown processes

    eliminate solid wastes from the body
  132. Respiratory system is composed of?
    2 lungs & a series of passages that connect the lungs to the outside atmosphere
  133. Structures that make up the passageway from the exterior to the alveoli of the lung interior include?
    • nose
    • mouth
    • pharyx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tree
  134. 3 primary functions of the respiratory system?
    *suppy oxygen to the blood & eventually to the cells

    *eliminate carbon dioxide from blood

    *to assist in regulating the acid-base balance of the blood
  135. Organs of the urinary system?
    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • bladder
    • urethra
  136. 4 functions of the urinary system?
    • regulate chemical composition of the blood
    • eliminate many waste products
    • regulate fluid & electrolyte balance & volume
    • maintain the acid-base balance of the body
  137. Transport & storage organs of the male include?
    • vas deferens
    • prostate gland
    • penis
  138. Organs of reproduction in the female?
    • ovaries
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
    • vagina
  139. Function of reproductive systems?
    reproduce the organism
  140. Nervous system is composed of?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • nerves
    • ganglia
    • special sense organs (eyes & ears)
  141. Function of nervous system?
    regulate body activities with electrical impulses that travel along various nerves
  142. Muscular system include?
    all muscle tissues of the body
  143. Muscular system is subdivided into 3 types of muscular which are?
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  144. Most of the musle mass of the body is _______ muscle?
    skeletal
  145. Skeletal muscle is?
    striated & under voluntary control
  146. What % of the weight of the human body is accounted for by voluntary or striated skeletal muscle?
    43%
  147. Smooth muscle is located?
    in the walls of hollow internal organs such as blood vessels, stomach, & intestines
  148. Smooth muscle are called involuntary bc?
    their contraction usually is not under voluntary or conscious control
  149. Cardiac muscle is found?
    only in the walls of the heart & is involuntary but striated
  150. 3 functions of muscle tissue are?
    • allow movement such as locomaotion of the body or movement of sub. through alimentary canal
    • maintain posture
    • produce heat
  151. Endocrine system includes?
    all the ductless glands
  152. Ductless glands include?
    • testes
    • ovaries
    • pancreas
    • adrenals
    • thymus
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • pineal
    • pituitary
  153. Placenta acts as?
    temporary endocrine gland
  154. Hormones are released where?
    directly into the bloodstream
  155. The secretions of the endocrine glands?
    hormones
  156. Function of the endocrine system?
    to regulate bodily activities through the various hormones carried by the cardiovascular system
  157. Integumentary system is composed of?
    • skin & all structures derived from the skin 
    • (hair, nails, sweat, & oil glands)
  158. Largest organ is?
    skin
  159. Symptoms of Interstitial lung diseases?
    shortness of breath & dry cough
  160. Symptoms of aspergilosis?
    • cough
    • fever
    • chest pain
    • difficulty breathing
  161. Aspergilosis is?
    caused by infecton from inhalation of the fungus Aspergillus
  162. Exposure index?
    a numeric value that is representative of the exposure the image receptor relieved in digital radiography
  163. A post-processing tech that increases brightness along the edges of the structures in an image to enhance the visibility of the edges?
    Edge enhancement
  164. The DR detector replaces?
    the film screen system & imaging plate as the image receptor using a more direct approach to capture images
  165. Highly complex mathematical formulas that are systematically applied to a data set for digital processing
    Algorithms
  166. Represents the # of shades of fray that can be demonstrated by each pixel
    bit depth
  167. The intensity of light that represents the individual pixels in the image on the monitor
    Brightness
  168. The center point of the xray beam 
    central ray
  169. A method of aquiring radiographic images digitally
    computed radiography
  170. the denstiy difference on adjacent areas of a radiographic image
    contrast
  171. the ability of an imaging system to distinguish between similar tissues
    contrast resolution
  172. a digital storage & image management system; in essence, a sophisticated computer system for storage of pt files & images
    digital archive
  173. a method of acquiring readiographic images digitally
    direct digital radiography
  174. series  of "boxes" that give form to the image
    display matrix
  175. pixel size of the monitor, related to the display matrix
    display pixel size
  176. A post-processing technique that increases brightness along the edges of structures on an image to enhance the visibility of the edges
    edge enhancement
  177. a numeric value that is representative of the exposure the image receptor recieved in digital radiography
    exposure index
  178. range of exposure factors that will produce an acceptable image 
    exposure latitude
  179. term used by certain equipment manufacturers to indicate exposure index
    exposure level
  180. a film-based radiographic image
    hard-copy radiograph
  181. computer system designed to support and integrate the operations of the entire hosptial
    hospital info system
  182. with computed radiography, the image plate records the latent images, similar to the film in a film-screen cassette used in film-screen imaging systems
    image plate
  183. random disturbance that obscures or reduces clarity
    noise
  184. picture element; an individual component of the image matrix
    pixel
  185. changing or enhancing the electronic image so it can be viewed from a different perspective or its diagnostic quality can be improved
    post-processing
  186. The recorded sharpness of structures on the image; also may be called detail, sharpness, or definition
    resolution
  187. post-processing technique that adjusts brightness values of adjacent pixels so they are closer together
    smoothing
  188. a radiographic image viewed on a computer monitor
    soft-copy radiograph
  189. decreased sharpness or resolution on an image
    unsharpness
  190. adjustment of the window level & window width by the user 
    windowing
  191. controls the brightness of a digital image
    window level
  192. controls the range of gray levels of an image
    window width 
  193. a computer that serves as a digital post-processing station and/or an image review station
    workstation

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