O-chem glossary (1)

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Author:
emilyp
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179524
Filename:
O-chem glossary (1)
Updated:
2012-10-23 23:56:31
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Organic chemistry
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Organic chemistry
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  1. hydrocarbons
    compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen
  2. saturated hydrocarbons
    hydrocarbons whose carbon-carbon bonds are all single bonds.
  3. unsaturated hydrocarbons
    hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon multiple bonds.
  4. alkanes
    saturated hydrocarbons. The simplest is methane.
  5. What is the tetrahedral C-C-C angle in alkanes?
    109.5 degrees
  6. straight chain/unbranched hydrocarbons
    "normal' strings or chains of carbon atoms (no branching).
  7. What is the general formula for alkanes?
    CnH2n+2


    Where n represents carbon atoms.
  8. What are the first 10 straight chain alkanes?
    • methane
    • ethane
    • propane
    • n-butane
    • n-pentane
    • n-hexane
    • n-heptane
    • n-octane
    • n-nonane
    • n-decane
  9. structural isomerism
    • When two molecules have the same atoms but different bonds. The molecules have the same formulas but different arrangement of atoms. Structural isomers have different properties. 
    • e.g. n-butane and isobutane
  10. substituent
    when a group is substituted for a hydrogen on an alkane chain.
  11. alkyl
    When an alkane functions as a substituent. e.g. When methane CHbecomes methyl -CH3.

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