Methods psych

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Methods psych
2012-10-24 05:59:53
uhd Methods psych

exam 1 methods psych
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  1. It emphasizes direct observation & experimentation to answer questions, which type of approach is this?
    Empirical Approach
  2. What are the characteristics of the scientific method?
    • general approach
    • Observation
    • Reporting
    • Concepts
    • instruments 
    • measurements
    • Hypotheses
  3. Scientific reporting is unbias and object
    what is one way to determine if a report is unbias?
    determine whether it can be verified by an independent observer. This is called interobserver agreement
  4. _______ is the difference between what an instrument says is true and what is actually true
  5. ______ is truthfulness
  6. _______ is consistency
  7. _______ is a tentative explanation for something
  8. Psychologists try to establish broad generalizations and genreal laws that apply to a diverse population. Which approach is this ?
    • Nomothetic appraoch
    • Describes groups
  9. ______ study the indivudual rather than groups.
  10. _______ research involves studies in which research findings are presented in terms of statistical summaries and analysis.
  11. __________research  produces verbal summaries of research findings with no statistical summaries and analysis.
    Qualitative research
  12. What are the four goals of research?
    • Description
    • prediction
    • understanding causes
    • creating change
  13. Description is associated with which type of research?
  14. Prediction is associated with which type of research?
    Correlational research
  15. Understanding causes is associated with which type of research?
  16. Creating change is associated with which type of research?
    Basic and applied research
  17. What are the sources of bias ?
    • ethnocentrism 
    • evaluating other peoples and cultures according to their own
  18. A theory must include what ?
    definitions of various events and must explain the causes of the events, info about relationships between these events and must explain the causes of events 
  19. a concept solely in terms of the " operations" or methods used to produce and measure it, is what ?
    Operational definition
  20. which variable is manipulated ?
    independent variable 
  21. which variable is measured?
    dependent variable 
  22. This research measures variable through observation or surveys to describe nd predict behavior
    observational & correlational designs
  23. Researchers manipulate an independent variable to determine the effect on a measured dependent variable
    Goal: identify the causes of behavior
    experimental designs
  24. Researchers manipulate an idenpendent variable & measure a dependent variable, but the setting of the research limits the researchers control over potential confounding variables
    Quasi- experimental designs
  25. Researchers describe, predict, and control variables in order to understand & treat the behavior of one individual
    single case design
  26. which committies review psychlogical research in order to protect the rights & walfare of human participants
    institutional review boards
  27. The subjective evaluation of the risk of the proposed research relative to the benefit, both to the individual and to society is what ?
    risk/benefit ratio
  28. This can occur when info is withheld from participants or when particpants are intentionally misinformed about an aspect of the research
  29. what is plagiarism?
    presenting another persons work without stating so
  30. what is the goal of sampling ?
    represent the larger population of all possible behaviors
  31. what is a concern of observational research?
    reactivity occurs when people react to the fact that they are being observed
  32. participant observation
    structured observation
    field experiement 
    are all ex: of what?
    observational methods
  33. public and private documents describing the activities of individuals, institutions, governments and other groups is known are what ?
    Archival records
  34. nominal- sort into categories
    ordinal-rank order
    Interval- distance between
    ration- ditance between with a value of 0
    these are what ?
    Measurement scales
  35. Degree to which two independent observers agree about their observations is what ?
    interobserver reliability
  36. administering the measure to a large sample of people at two different times. this is which theory?
    Test retest theory
  37. factors that influence reliability are..
    • the number of items- more the better
    • sample need to vary
    • actual admisistration  of the measure
  38. The _______ of a measurement represents the extent to which the instrument measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure
    construct validity
  39. what are 3 different survey designs
    • cross sectional-1+ sample are drawn from the pop, at one time
    • successive independant sample-cross sectional surveys are drawn from the pop. over time; differnt rep, sample are selected each time
    • longitudinal- individuals are surveyed more than once
  40. a quantitative index of how well we are able to predict one set of scores is what?
    correlation coefficient
  41. Researchers can estimate _______ between the sample results & the true pop. values
    margin of error