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It emphasizes direct observation & experimentation to answer questions, which type of approach is this?
What are the characteristics of the scientific method?
- general approach
Scientific reporting is unbias and object
what is one way to determine if a report is unbias?
determine whether it can be verified by an independent observer. This is called interobserver agreement
_______ is the difference between what an instrument says is true and what is actually true
______ is truthfulness
_______ is consistency
_______ is a tentative explanation for something
Psychologists try to establish broad generalizations and genreal laws that apply to a diverse population. Which approach is this ?
- Nomothetic appraoch
- Describes groups
______ study the indivudual rather than groups.
_______ research involves studies in which research findings are presented in terms of statistical summaries and analysis.
__________research produces verbal summaries of research findings with no statistical summaries and analysis.
What are the four goals of research?
- understanding causes
- creating change
Description is associated with which type of research?
Prediction is associated with which type of research?
Understanding causes is associated with which type of research?
Creating change is associated with which type of research?
Basic and applied research
What are the sources of bias ?
- evaluating other peoples and cultures according to their own
A theory must include what ?
definitions of various events and must explain the causes of the events, info about relationships between these events and must explain the causes of events
a concept solely in terms of the " operations" or methods used to produce and measure it, is what ?
which variable is manipulated ?
which variable is measured?
This research measures variable through observation or surveys to describe nd predict behavior
observational & correlational designs
Researchers manipulate an independent variable to determine the effect on a measured dependent variable
Goal: identify the causes of behavior
Researchers manipulate an idenpendent variable & measure a dependent variable, but the setting of the research limits the researchers control over potential confounding variables
Quasi- experimental designs
Researchers describe, predict, and control variables in order to understand & treat the behavior of one individual
single case design
which committies review psychlogical research in order to protect the rights & walfare of human participants
institutional review boards
The subjective evaluation of the risk of the proposed research relative to the benefit, both to the individual and to society is what ?
This can occur when info is withheld from participants or when particpants are intentionally misinformed about an aspect of the research
what is plagiarism?
presenting another persons work without stating so
what is the goal of sampling ?
represent the larger population of all possible behaviors
what is a concern of observational research?
reactivity occurs when people react to the fact that they are being observed
are all ex: of what?
public and private documents describing the activities of individuals, institutions, governments and other groups is known are what ?
nominal- sort into categories
Interval- distance between
ration- ditance between with a value of 0
these are what ?
Degree to which two independent observers agree about their observations is what ?
administering the measure to a large sample of people at two different times. this is which theory?
Test retest theory
factors that influence reliability are..
- the number of items- more the better
- sample need to vary
- actual admisistration of the measure
The _______ of a measurement represents the extent to which the instrument measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure
what are 3 different survey designs
- cross sectional-1+ sample are drawn from the pop, at one time
- successive independant sample-cross sectional surveys are drawn from the pop. over time; differnt rep, sample are selected each time
- longitudinal- individuals are surveyed more than once
a quantitative index of how well we are able to predict one set of scores is what?
Researchers can estimate _______ between the sample results & the true pop. values
margin of error