Social psych exam 2

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Social psych exam 2
2012-10-24 11:42:10
uhd social psych exam

exam 2
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  1. The content of the self
    Our knowledge about who we are
    Describes which concept
    self concept
  2. The act of thinking about ourselves
    Is what ?
    self awareness 
  3. The self helps organize all of the information, knowledge, experiences, etc. that we have about ourselves
    Is which function ?
    Organizational function 
  4.  mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves
    Is a what ?
    self schema 
  5. the tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves
    is which effect ?
    self reference effect
  6. Helpful in regulating our own behavior, choices, and plans for the future
    Is what ?
    self regulatory function
  7. self-control is a limited resourcePeople have a limited amount of energy to devote to self-control 
    is what ?
    Self regulatory resource model 
  8. Muraven, Tice, & Baumeister (1998)  is which study ?
    dont think about a white bear
  9. the process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
    is what ?
  10. when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values
    Ex: being videod or looking in the mirror 
    is what ?
    self awareness theory 
  11. Self-awareness is particularly aversive when it reminds us of our shortcomings, and under these circumstances, people try to avoid it
    E.g., you fail at something, so you get drunk afterwards to avoid thing about it
    negative aspect of self awareness 
  12. it make us more aware of our moral and ideals
    E.g., you think you’re a pretty moral person but you’re about to cheat on an exam. Being self-aware will make you aware of your morality so that you probably won’t do it.
    this is ?
    positive aspect of self awareness 
  13. theories about the causes of one’s feelings and behaviors
    Often we learn such theories from our culture
    E.g., “absence makes the heart grow fonder” or feeling sad on a Monday because it’s the beginning of the work week

    are known as what ?
    Casual theories 
  14.  Wilson, Laser, & Stone (1982) is which study ?
    watching a film and loud contrustion noises in the back ground 
  15. when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs

    First, this only works when we DON’T know how we feel
    E.g., do you like Lady Gaga? (I don’t know…)
    If we don’t know how we feel, we’ll look at our behavior

    Second people judge whether their behavior really reflects how they feel or whether it was the situation that made them act that way
    So if you were listening to Lady Gaga of your own free will (no gun to your head), then you’ll be more likely to conclude that you like her
    However, if you were forced to listen to her, then you’re less likely to make that conclusion
    Self perception theory 
  16. the desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures
    Is which type of motivation ?
    Intrinsic motivation
  17. the desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
    E.g., reading because you’re getting a reward for each book you read or working out because you have pressures to fit into that wedding dress
    Is which type of motivation?
    extrinsic motivation
  18. the tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons
    Is which effect ?
    likes to read 
    this time with get rewarded for reading 
    now only thinks he like to read if rewarded
    over justification effect
  19. Rewards are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done (e.g., rewards for passing a class; doesn’t matter if you get an A or D)
    Is which type of reward?
    task-contingent rewards
  20. Rewards that are based on how well you perform a task (e.g., rewards for getting A’s; rewarded only for excellent performance)
    This type of reward is less likely to undermine intrinsic interest (it might even increase interest) because it conveys the message that you are good at a task
    Is which type of reward?
  21. Schachter & Singer (1962) is which study ?
    • injection 
    • it shows that emotions can be the result of a self perception process 
  22. What is the cognitive apprasial therories of emotions?
    • emotions result from people’s interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
    • More of a logical approach to figuring why you feel the way that you do
  23. we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
    Is which theory ?
    Social comparison theory
  24. what are Two important questions in social comparison?
    • When do you engage in social comparison?
    • When there is no objective standard to measure themselves against 
    • When you experience uncertainty about yourself in a particular area

    • With whom do you choose to compare yourself?
    • barbie or jane ?
  25. comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability
    Is which type of comparision ?
    upward social comparison 
  26. comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability
    Is which type of comparison?
    Downward social comparison 
  27. comparing your current performance with your own past performance
    Is which type of comparison?
    temporal comparison 
  28. How do the nature of our goals affects the comparisons we make?
    • Accuracy goals – compare yourself with someone who is similar
    • Inspirational goals – upward comparison
    • Self-enhancement goals – downward comparison
  29. Impression managment is what ?
     the attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen
  30. the process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likeable to another person, often of higher status
    is what ?
  31. the strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
    is what ?
    Self handicapping
  32. what are two ways to self handicap?
    People actually create obstacles that reduce the likelihood that they will succeed on a task so that if they do fail, they can blame it on these obstacles rather than on their lack of ability (more extreme)

    People devise ready-made excuses in case they fail
  33. negative feelings that arise when we behave in a way that is discrepant (goes against) your self-concept/attitudes/beliefs/values
    is what ?
    cognitive dissonance 
  34. what are 3 basic way to reduce dissonance?
    • 1.change the behavior
    • -If we change the behavior, it’s now more in line with our attitudes or beliefs, so we don’t feel bad
    • 2.Change the attitude or belief (internal justification)
    • -If we change our attitude or belief, it now matches the behavior, so we don’t feel bad any more
    • 3.Come up with some outside excuse (external justification)
    • -If we come up with some excuse or justification, we don’t have to change our attitudes or behavior, and we still feel better
  35. dissonance aroused after making a decision; reduced by making what you picked seem better than before and making what you rejected seem worse than before
    Doing this helps us feel better about the choice we made
     this describes which dissonance?
    post decision dissonance
  36. Had women rate the attractiveness and desirability of small appliances
    was which study?
    Brehm study 
  37. Had participants engage in one of three initiations to be admitted into a group (discussing the psychology of sex) – severe initiation, mild initiation, no initiation
    was which study ?
    Aronson & mills
  38. the tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard for is called what ?
    justification of effort
  39. an excuse, reason, or justification for dissonant behavior that resides outside the individual 

    E.g., do something you normally wouldn’t do in order to receive a reward or avoid a severe punishment
    is an example of which type of justification ?
    external justification
  40. the reduction of justification by changing something about oneself 
    E.g., one’s attitude or behavior after doing something you normally wouldn’t do
    is an example of which type of justification ?
    internal justification
  41. Stating an opinion or attitude that is different from one’s private belief or attitude
    is which type of advocacy?
    counterattitudinal advocacy
  42. Had participants perform a boring task and then asked them to lie to the next person by telling her that it was fun and interesting

    They either received $1 for telling the lie or $20
    After the experiment, they asked the participants (lie-tellers) to rate how much they enjoyed the task

    Results: they found that those who were paid $20 rated the task as boring and those who were paid $1 rated the task as fun and interesting
    is which study ?
    Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) study
  43. When you have insufficient external justification (or you don’t have a good excuse why you behaved differently than normal), the only way to reduce cognitive dissonance is to use internal justifications (or change your attitude or belief so that it matches your behavior)
    which type of punishment is this ?
    insufficiant punishment
  44. Told children that they were not allowed to play with the toy they rated as most attractive 
    Threatened the children with either mild punishment for playing with the toy or severe punishment
    Aronson & Carlsmith (1963) study
  45. what is self persuasion ?
    A long lasting form of attitiude change that results from attempts at self justification
  46. mild children still convinced weeks later they had no desire to play with the toys is which study ?
    freeman study 
  47. what is the ben franklin effect ?
    • asked an enimy to do him a favor
    • he expressed how grateful he was
    • now they are BFF
  48. participant whom did him a favor by giving there winnings back to a needy ecperiementor, liked him more.
    which study is this ?
    jecker and landy study 
  49. people become distressed when their sense of their actual self differs from their ideal or ought selves
    is which theory ?
    self discrepency theory 
  50. what are the 3 selves?
    • Actual self – how you really are
    • Ideal self – the type of person we desire to be (personal desires, goals, or aspirations)
    • Ought self – the type of person we believe we should be (carries responsibilities, obligation, or duty-bound beliefs)
  51. one’s self-concept can be threatened by another individual’s behavior and that the level of threat is determined by:

    The closeness of the other individual 
    Personal relevance of the behavior
    This is which theory ?
    self evaluation maintenance theory
  52. We can distance ourselves from the person who outperforms us
    Change how relevant the domain is to our self-image
    Change their performance relative to the other person’s
    these are three ways to what ?
    reduce dissonance
  53. participant were "shocked" by a participant without hesitation to the other person health of pain 
    which study is this ?
    Milgram study 
  54. the theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our bahavior and the situation in which is occurs is which theory?
    self perception theory
  55. what are attitudes?
    evaluations of people, objects, and ideas
  56. What are the three components of an attitude ?
    • Affective component – consists of your emotional reactions toward the attitude object
    • Cognitive component – consists of your thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object
    • Behavioral component – consists of your actions or observable behavior toward the attitude object
  57. where do attitudes come from ?
    feelings and values 
  58. What are cognitively based attitudes?
    thoughts and beliefs
  59. What are affectively based attitudes?
    emotional reaction 
  60. Where do affectively based attitudes come from?
    • People’s values (e.g., religious or political beliefs) 
    • Sensory reactions (e.g., liking the taste of coffee)
    • Aesthetic reactions (e.g., admiring a painting)
    • Conditioning (e.g., classical conditioning or operant conditioning)
  61. What are behaviorally based attitudes?
    an attitude based on observations of how one behaves towards an attitude object
  62. what is the relation to self-perception theory?
    • behavioral based attitude also.....
    • When our attitudes are uncertain or ambiguous, we figure out how we feel by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
  63. communication advocating a particular side of an issue is which type of persuasion
    communication persuasion
  64. “who said what to whom” 
    Who = the source of the communication
    What = the nature of the communication
    Whom = the nature of the audience
    which study is this ?
    yale attitude change approach 
  65. which model explains the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change 
    Elaboration likelihood model
  66. when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication
    is which route to persuasion?
    Central route to persuasion
  67. when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
    is which route to persuaion ?
    Peripheral route to persuasion
  68. personal revelance theory is....
    • More relevant = more motivated to pay attention (central)
    • Less relevant = less motivated to pay attention (peripheral)
  69. the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities
    People high in need for cognition just enjoy thinking about things 
    high cognition= paying attention
    this is what ?
    this is a need for cognition
  70. which route will cause long lasting attitude change ?
    central route 
  71. when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior. this is which type of theory 
    reactance theory
  72. put one of two signs on college bathroom walls. One read ‘Do not write on these walls under any circumstances’ whilst the other read ‘Please don’t write on these walls.’ A couple of weeks later, the walls with the ‘Do not write on these walls under any circumstances’ notice had far more graffiti on them.
    Pennebaker & Sanders theory 
  73. study while travelling with a Chinese couple

    While most said they would not serve a Chinese person, most of the establishments did serve his Chinese friends
    So, there’s a disconnect between their attitudes and their behavior towards Chinese people
    which study is this ?
    lapier study
  74. The strength of the association between an attitude object and a persons evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object
    Attitude accessibility
  75. explain specific attitudes
    • Only specific attitudes toward the behavior in question can be expected to predict that behavior 
    • Specific attitude about behavior is positive = increased behavioral intent = more likely to do behavior
    • Specific attitude about behavior is negative= decreased behavioral intent = less likely to do behavior
  76. people’s beliefs about how people they care about will view the behavior in question
    Others view behavior positively = increased behavioral intent = more likely to do behavior
    Others view behavior negtively = decreased behavioral intent = less likely to do behavior
    this is an example of ?
    subjective norms
  77. ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior
    High control = increased behavioral intent = more likely to do behavior
    Low control = decreased behavioral intent = less likely to do behavior
    this is which type of control?
    Perceived behavioral control
  78.  use logical arguments to change attitudes via the central route (if people are motivate and have the ability to pay attention) or peripheral cues through the peripheral route (people are not motivated  or don’t have the ability to pay attention)
    if you are trying to change which type of attitude ?
    cognitivly based
  79. use emotional appeals
    if you are trying to change which type of attitude ?
    affectively based
  80. a change in one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people
    is what ?
  81. the influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior
    We conform because we believe that others’ interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action
    this is which type of conformity?
     informational social influence
  82. Had participants estimate how far a dot of light had moved
    Results: when participants were placed in a group together, over several trials of stating their estimates out loud, their estimates converged to a common estimate (T1: 1, 3, 10; T2: 2, 4, 6, T3: 4, 4, 4)
    These results indicate that people were using each other as a source of information
    is which study ?
    sherif study
  83. conforming to other people’s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right
    You really believe that the other person’s behavior is correct and appropriate
    which type of acceptance is this ?
  84.  conforming to other people’s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what they are doing or saying
    this is which type of compliance?
  85. person a person b person c
    asked to point out perportrator, other participants said different
    Baron, Vandello, & Brunsman study
  86. When the situation is ambiguous
    • When you are unsure of the correct response, the appropriate behavior, or the right idea, you will be most open to influence from others
    • The more uncertain you are, the  more you look to others
  87. When the situation is a crisis?
    • we usually don’t have time to stop and think; we need to act immediately
    • If we feel scared and panicky, it’s only natural for us to see how other people are responding
  88. When other people are experts....
    The more expertise or knowledge a person has, the more valuable we see them as a source of information
  89. the expectations about how group members should behave
    this is known as?
    social norms
  90.  the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them
    This type of conformity results in public compliance with the group’s beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors
    This is called ?
    Normative social influence
  91. Presented the group with a line and asked them to match that line to one of three choices (there was clearly a correct answer)
    All confederates gave the wrong answer and then the participant would have to give his choice last
    Would people would still conform? (correct answer was clear)

    Results: many people conformed even though the group’s answer was clearly wrong
    which study is this ?
  92. Social impact theory (Latane, 1981) – depends on three variables:
    Strength (how important to you is the group?)

    More important = more likely to conform

    Immediacy (how close is the group physically during the attempt to influence you?)

    Closer the group is to you = more likely to conform

    Number (how many people are in the group?)

    More people = more likely to conform
  93. When one has no allies in the group.......
    • No ally in group = more likely to conform
    • Having someone else disagreeing with the group will decrease the likelihood of you conforming to the group
  94. When the group is collectivistic
    • Collectivistic culture= more likely to conform
    • Do not see conformity as a bad thing
  95. the tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms
    If enough idiosyncrasy credits are earned, the person can, on occasion, go against the group without any negative consequences
    this is ?
  96. people’s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others
    What are people SUPPOSED to do
    E.g., people are supposed to slow down at a yellow light
    this is which type of norm?
    injunctive norm
  97. people’s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situation, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others
    What people ACTUALLY do
    E.g., most speed up when they see a yellow light
    which norm is this ?
    descriptive norm
  98. patients have jail mates and officer roles, officers got big head and liked role 
    Cialdini, Kallgren, & Reno study