Card Set Information
What are the functions of the nucleus?
Storage of the cell's genetic material
Packaged loose (
) when in use
Packaged into tight structures (
) when DNA must be divided between two daughter cells.
Synthesis of the protein coding material:
DNA makes _______ which makes __________.
The process by which DNA makes RNA is called
What is transcription?
copying from one form to another in the same language.
The conversion of an RNA code to protein is called
DNA can be used to make a copy of itself. This process is called
RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid with the bases
A,C,G, and U
Exceptions to the Central Dogma
Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material.
These carry the code for an enzyme called
that converts RNA to DNA.
For this reason, these viruses are called
DNA is then inserted into the host cell.
This is a destructive process for the host cell; damage to the host cell DNA is common and results is diseases such as cancer.
What is an RNA virus that causes the disease acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
DNA consists of two
means that one goes up while the other goes down.
DNA is visible through the light microscope only when
it is packaged into
during cell division.
unspooled, "loose" DNA strands
We define up and down by the numbering of
carbons on the sugar part of the backbone.
is where we
start reading, and where the enzymes that work on DNA start their work.
everything ends up.
The base pairing properties of DNA and its directionality are th two most
important features of this essential molecule.
region of DNA that is made into protein
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
carries the code for a primary sequence of amino acids in protein.
Transcription takes place in the
nucleus, where DNA is packaged and stored.
Base pairs for DNA
A, C, G, and T
The enzyme which makes RNA from a DNA template is called
The final edited version of the RNA made from a DNA template is called
Messenger RNA leaves the nucleus through
to the cytoplasm, where the protein factories - ribosomes - read the mRNA message and
it to a particular sequence of amino acids in the growing protein.
Promoter site is
where RNA synthesis is started.
- so this is the start of a segment of DNA that will eventually code for a protein.
Terminator site is
where RNA synthesis is stopped.
Only one strand is read. It is called
, since it carries the
As RNA polymerase travels along the DNA, the RNA strand
the portion of the DNA that is expressed, or made into protein.
the portion of the DNA that is not made into protein and must be edited out.
The RNA which will be used to make a protein is called
In order to create mRNA from hnRNA, the
must be sliced out and the
stitched together. This is accomplished by an organelle called
- which is made up of several small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, or snRNPs.
A structure called a __________ is formed, the intron is cut out, and the ends of the exon are stitched together.