Module 5

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Module 5
2012-10-24 12:44:47
Biomedical core

Objective 1.5
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  1. What are the functions of the nucleus?
    • Storage of the cell's genetic material:
    • DNA
    • Packaged loose (euchromatin) when in use
    • Packaged into tight structures (heterochromatin; chromosomes) when DNA must be divided between two daughter cells.

    • Synthesis of the protein coding material:
    • RNA
  2. DNA makes _______ which makes __________.
    RNA; protein
  3. The process by which DNA makes RNA is called
  4. What is transcription?
    copying from one form to another in the same language.
  5. The conversion of an RNA code to protein is called
  6. DNA can be used to make a copy of itself. This process is called
  7. RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid with the bases
    A,C,G, and U
  8. Exceptions to the Central Dogma
    Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material.

    These carry the code for an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts RNA to DNA.

    For this reason, these viruses are called retroviruses.

    DNA is then inserted into the host cell.

    This is a destructive process for the host cell; damage to the host cell DNA is common and results is diseases such as cancer.
  9. What is an RNA virus that causes the disease acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  10. DNA consists of two
    anitparallel strands
  11. Antiparallel
    means that one goes up while the other goes down.
  12. DNA is visible through the light microscope only when
    it is packaged into chromosomes during cell division.
  13. Euchromatin
    unspooled, "loose" DNA strands
  14. We define up and down by the numbering of
    carbons on the sugar part of the backbone.
  15. 5' (pronounced "5-prime") carbon is where we
    start reading, and where the enzymes that work on DNA start their work.
  16. 3' end is where
    everything ends up.
  17. The base pairing properties of DNA and its directionality are th two most
    important features of this essential molecule.
  18. Gene
    region of DNA that is made into protein
  19. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    carries the code for a primary sequence of amino acids in protein.
  20. Transcription takes place in the
    nucleus, where DNA is packaged and stored.
  21. Base pairs for DNA
    A, C, G, and T
  22. The enzyme which makes RNA from a DNA template is called
    RNA polymerase
  23. The final edited version of the RNA made from a DNA template is called
    messenger RNA
  24. Messenger RNA leaves the nucleus through
    nuclear pores to the cytoplasm, where the protein factories - ribosomes - read the mRNA message and translate it to a particular sequence of amino acids in the growing protein.
  25. Promoter site is
    • where RNA synthesis is started.
    • - so this is the start of a segment of DNA that will eventually code for a protein.
  26. Terminator site is
    where RNA synthesis is stopped.
  27. Only one strand is read. It is called
    coding strand, since it carries the genetic code
  28. As RNA polymerase travels along the DNA, the RNA strand
    gets longer
  29. Exon is
    the portion of the DNA that is expressed, or made into protein.
  30. Intron is
    the portion of the DNA that is not made into protein and must be edited out.
  31. The RNA which will be used to make a protein is called
    the transcript.
  32. In order to create mRNA from hnRNA, the introns must be sliced out and the exons stitched together.  This is accomplished by an organelle called
    spliceosome- which is made up of several small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, or snRNPs.
  33. A structure called a __________ is formed, the intron is cut out, and the ends of the exon are stitched together.