Chapter Five

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Chapter Five
2012-10-24 13:49:47

Research Methods
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  1. Oldest technique of looking at how the brain works.
    Experiemental ablation
  2. The removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of a lab animal; presumably, the functions that can no longer be performed are the ones the region previously controlled.
    Experimental ablation
  3. Another word for the damage done to the brain in experimental ablation.
    Brain lesion
  4. An ablation technique where you insert wire into the brain that emits a high radio frequency, and it kills everything close by (whole neurons and axons)
    RF lesion
  5. An ablation technique that uses an exitatory amino acid, kills only cell body, not axons of nearbyb cells. Stimulates cells to death.
    Excitotoxic lesions
  6. An ablation technique that is like a placebo or control. You perform surgery, not do not damage the brain. Can see if an animal's personality changes simply from opening the skull cap.
    Sham lesion
  7. Usually lesions are permanent, but sometimes scientists use an anesthetic into a brain that blcoks action potentials to that part of the brain for a short time. This is called...
    Reversible brain lesion
  8. Brain surgery using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electronde or cannula in a specified position of the brain.
    Stereotaxis surgery
  9. A device that permits a surgeon to position an electrode or cannula into a specific part of the brain.
    Stereotaxic apparatus
  10. A collection of drawings of sections of the brain of a particular animal with measurements that provide coordinates for stereotaxic surgery
    Stereotaxic atlas
  11. A histological method that labels the axons and terminal buttons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region
    Anterograde labeling method
  12. Antereograde labeling is used to trace what?
    Efferent axons
  13. A protein derived from kidney beans and used as an anterograde tracer; taken up by dendrites and cell bodies and carried to the ends of the axons.
  14. A histological method that labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region. 
    Retrograde labeling method
  15. A dye that serves as a retrograde label; taken up by terminal buttons and carried back to the cells.
  16. Retrograde labeling method is used to trace what?
    Afferent axons
  17. The use of a device that employs a computer to analyze data obtained by a scanning beam of X-rays to produce a two-dimension picture of a "slice" through the body
    Computerized tomography (CT scan)
  18. More detialed than CT scan, no X-rays, uses magnetic field that detects radiation of hydrogen molecules in the brain's horizontal, sagittal, and frontal planes.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  19. A very fine electrode generally used to record activity of individual neurons, or single-unit recording.
  20. An electrode used to record the electrical activity of large numbers of neurons in a particular region of the brain.
  21. An electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp.
  22. The use of a devce that reveals the localization of a radioactive tracer in a living brain.
    Positron emission tomography
  23. As neural activity increases, what happens to metabolic acitvity?
    It increases as well.
  24. This uses radioactive labeling of a non-metabolizable chemical.
  25. A modification of the MRI procedure that permits the meaurement of regional metabolism of the brain
    Functional MRI (fMRI)
  26. This compares the concordance rates of traits between monozygotic pairs and dizygotic pairs.
    Twin studies
  27. If both twins have a certain trait (such as a disorder), they are said to be...
  28. If one identical twin has schizophrenia, the chances the other one has it are? Fraternal twins?
  29. Adoption studies require what?
    That the investigator know the identity of the parents of the people being studies.
  30. Adoption studies are a stronger assessment of what influences?
    Genetic vs. environmental