Chapter 6

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Anonymous
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179640
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Chapter 6
Updated:
2012-10-24 14:46:52
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Vision
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  1. Specialized neurons within the five senses that detect physical events from the environment.
    Sensory receptors
  2. The process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials
    Sensory transduction
  3. A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus
    Receptor potential
  4. Cahnges in receptor potential leads to the release of...
    neurotransmitters
  5. Human eye detects ____________ _____________ (light) between 380 and 760 nanometers
    Electromagnetic radiation
  6. Consits of the elctromagnetic spectrum wavelengths that are visible (violet-red)
    hue
  7. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation
    Brightness
  8. The purity of electromagnetic radiation. EMR with one wavelength is considered pure. EMR with all wavelengths appear white.
    Saturation
  9. The white of the eye that reflects light
    Sclera
  10. Clear part of the eye. Light travels through it.
    Cornea
  11. Opening of the eye.
    Pupil
  12. The colored muscle of the eye
    Iris
  13. Focuses images on the retina by contraction and relaxation of the cillary muscles
    Lens
  14. Clear liquid in the eye. Light must pass through it.
    Vitreous humor
  15. Changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye, accomplished by ciliary mucles that focus images on near or distant objects on the retina.
    Accomodation
  16. Receptive portion of the eye, and the interior lining that contains the rod and cone receptor cells.
    Retina
  17. One of the receptor cells of the reitina; sensitive to light of low intensity. Night vision.
    Rod
  18. One of the receptor cells of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light. Encodes color vision.
    Cone
  19. The region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals. Color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found here. 
    Fovea
  20. The location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot.
    Optic disk
  21. Receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex
    Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus
  22. A cross-shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the bsae of the brain, just anterior to the pituitry gland.
    Optic chiasm
  23. Axons from inner halves of retina project...
    Contralaterally (across optic chiasm)
  24. Axons from outer halves of retina ascend...
    Ipsilaterally
  25. These make up the inner 2 layers of the lateral geniculate nucleaus. Involved in form perception, movement, depth, small differences in light intensity
    Magnocellular layers
  26. The outer four layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus involved in color perception and fine detail.
    Parvocellular layers
  27. What are the three layers of the retina?
    Photoreceptor layer, bipolar cell layer, and ganglion cell layer
  28. A bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. 
    Bipolar cell.
  29. A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells.
    Horizontal cell
  30. A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the inner processes of the bipolar cells.
    Amazcrine cell
  31. A protein dye bnded to retinal, a subtance derived from vitamin A; responsible for transduction of visual information.
    Photopigments
  32. When photoreceptors are not being stimulated, rods and cones _________ ad release glutamate continuously, which in turn ___________ the adjacent bipolar cell.
    Depolarize/Hyperpolarize
  33. Trichromatic color theory doesn't take into account how we see....
    yellow
  34. What are the three types of color detecting cones? And which do we have the least of?
    Blue, green and red cones. We have the least blue cones.
  35. This theory says that red, green, and blue cones transmit info to ganglion cells.
    Opponent process theory
  36. A type of color blindness where one sees only blues and yellows, confuses red and green. Red cones are filled with green cone pigment.
    Protonopia
  37. A type of color blindness where one sees only blues and yellows. Green cones are filled with red cone pigment.
    Deuteranopia
  38. Sees worl in greend and reds. Dificulty with blue cones--lack of blue cones or faulty. There is no gender difference between males and females.
    Tritanopia
  39. This receives information from the lateral geniculate cortex and must process it. Involved with visual perception.
    Striate Cortex
  40. Tey found that neurons in visual cortex respond to specific features (not just light).`
    Hubel and Wiesel
  41. Most neurons in the striate cortex are sensitive to what?
    Orientation
  42. Vision without color due to damage of medial occipital lobe. 
    Achromatopia
  43. Inability to recognize faces
    Prosopagnosia
  44. Can't perceive more than one object at a time in the visual field.
    Simultagnosia

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