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The ability or official capacity to exercise control over others; a person, group, or nation having great influence or control over others.
The ability to influence the behaviors of others.
What type of power is leveraged, earned and needs to be maintained; cannot be conferred
What type of power is conferred, not earned, by position, not based on ability
What aspects of power are based on fear, deception, manipulation, bullying
Negative aspects of power
What aspects of power are based on mutual trust, mutual respect, friendship
Positive aspects of power
An unearned advantage based on social group that simultaneously disadvantages members outside that social group
Definition of privilege
What is referred to by the following statements
people of higher socioeconomic status receive more advantages, and people of lower socioeconomic status receive more disadvantages.
people with memberships to multipleempowered groups typically are unaware of the advantages of social privilege
Being different than normal requires that a member of a marginalized group continually work at maintaining a positive self-image
The more social identities associated with marginalized groups, the greater the struggle to create and maintain high self-esteem.
individual consequences of privilege
For members of marginalized groups, the experiences of social privilege are completely different from the experiences of empowered group members. Being different than normal requires that a member of a marginalized group continuallywork at maintaining a positive self-image. This is an example of what?
a societal consequence of privilege
When reported mental health problems have increased in the gay/lesbian/bisexual community in those states that have passed laws banning same-sex marriage, what societal consequence of power is this?
When in the early stages of lung cancer, rates of surgery and survival are lower in Black females than White females, what societal consequence of power is this
Gender & Race
If the male-female wage gap in an organization is smaller because there are high-level female executives what societal consequence of power is being seen?
Middle-class Blacks living in poorer neighborhoods than middle-class Whites is an example of what societal consequence of power
Race / Ethnicity
What kind of societal consequence of power occurs when American Indians and Alaska Natives are two times less likely than Whites to receive prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy
Socioeconomic and Race/Ethnicity
What are kind of consequence of power is
seen when comparing empowered groups to marginalized groups
Societal consequences of power
What is a package of unearned advantages granted to those members of a diverse society with white skin connected to socioeconomic status privilege
a phenomenon that puts Whites at an advantage, an advantagewhich most Whites are not consciously aware of.
an expression of institutional racism that is largely unacknowledged by White individuals
Rationalizations for retaining privileges & avoiding responsibilities
- It was unintentional
- It's all over now
- It's only a few people
- Costing victimization
Per Fishbein, what is an unreasonable negative attitude toward others because of their membership in a particular group which does not get modified when exposed to new and conflicting information.
What are the three levels of privilege
Cognitive: stereotype, overgeneralization, ignores differences
Emotional: feelings of hostility or liking based on characteristics
Action-oriented: positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior
What level of privilege is a stereotype, favorable or unfavorable, an overgeneralization or exaggeration that ignores individual differences within a group.
What level of privilege is where there are feelings of hostility or liking based on characteristics such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or creed
What level of privelege is a positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior
What method of reducing social privilege attempts to give marginalized groups access to the historicaladvantages enjoyed by empowered groups and is often described as "leveling the playing field"
What method of reducing social privilege is based on laws to make discrimination against marginalized groups illegal
What is an action based on prejudice
Identify types of discrimination
Type A (isolate) : individual purposely acts to harm members of another group
Type B (small-group) : harmful affirmation intentionally by a small number of dominant-group individuals acting in concert against members of another group without direct supporting the norms of most social or community contexts.
Type C (direct institutionalized): organizationally prescribed or community prescribed action that by intention has a differential and negative impact on members of another group
Type D (indirect institutionalized) : dominant-group practices having a harmful impact on members of another group even though the organizationally or community prescribed norms or regulations guiding those actions have been established with no intent to harm
Type of discrimination which occurs when an individual purposely acts to harm members of another group
Type A (isolate discrimination)
Type of discrimination described as harmful action taken intentionally by a small number of dominant-group individuals acting in concert against members of another group, without the direct support of the norms of most social or community contexts.
Type B (small-group discrimination)
Type of discrimination defined as organizationally prescribed or community-prescribed action that by intention has a differential and negative impact on members of another group.
Type C (direct institutionalized discrimination)
Type of discrimination consisting of dominant-group practices having a harmful impact on members of another group even though the organizationally or community-prescribed norms or regulations guiding those actions have been established with no intent to harm.
Type D (indirect institutionalized discrimination)
What Directive identifes defines the five (5) protected categories as race, color, national origin, sex, and religion.
What are the five (5) protected categories
- national origin
What are the five protected category described by DoDD 1350.2
a. race, color, nationality, sex, and religion
b. race, color, national origin, age, and religion
c. race, color, age, disability, and religion
d. race, color, national origin, sex, and religion
race, color, national origin, sex, and religion
Which two protected categories were added by Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964
a. nationality and age
b. nationality and disability
c. age and disability
d. national origin and age
age and disability
What added two additional protected categories; what categories were added?
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- age and disability
Describe one way prejudice and discrimination can manifest
- In-Group versus Out-Group
- -In-group (most like me) = In-group bias
- -Out-group (least like me) = Out-group homogeneity
About which manifestation of prejudice and discrimination will I have more prejudice and stereotypes
c. Social Learning
Manifestations of discrimination and prejudice in laws, regulations, and norms of segregation or unequal access that maintain thepower of dominant groups over subordinate ones
Social Learning and Conformity
a person who has suffered harm, including:
- Physical or mental injury.
- Emotional suffering.
- Economic loss.
- Substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are violations of national criminal laws.
Definition of victim
a reactive problem-solving approach that narrowly defines problems in terms of the victims.
a distinct concept that has the victim at the center of its concerns and addresses the needs of victims through research, education, and service to ultimately contribute to the improvement of the human condition in our country
Definition of victim focus
an organized set of doctrines, ideas, or principles usuallyintended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole.
Power + Prejudice =
What are the steps involved in the process of blaming the victim
Step 1 – Identify a social problem
Step 2 – Study those affected by the problem and discover how they are differentfrom the rest of society
Step 3 – Define the differences as the cause of the problem.
Step 4 – Assign someone to initiate a humanitarian program to correct the impact ofthe differences.
Which step of blaming the victim must be structural or social in origin, be of considerable magnitude, and present viable solution alternatives
Step 1 – Identify a social problem
Which step of blaming the victim is described in the phrase "the poor are poor because they are unfit" because traits that differentiate victims from the rest of us are identified.
Step 3 – Define the differences as the cause of the problem
Assigning someone to initiate a humanitarian program to correct the impact of the differences is which step in the process of blaming the victim.
anyone who sees or otherwise becomes aware of behavior thatappears worthy of comment or action
a “psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely tointervene in a situation when others are present than when they are alone
(also known as bystander apathy)
a socialphenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical sizewhen responsibility is not explicitly assigned
Diffusion of responsibility
assessing a situation to determine what kind of intervention, if any, might be appropriate.
can also mean stepping in and acknowledgingand recognizing positive behaviors.
Why are Bystanders often hesitate to act
They fear loss of relationships, with the problem person or with others who maydisapprove of action.
They fear retaliation, especially if the problem person is powerful.
They fear embarrassment, especially if they may not be believed or they may beviewed as troublemakers, or as violating other community norms.
They feel a lack of competence, or uncertainty about what action would be best.
They believe someone else will take action (perhaps someone else with moreauthority or expertise).
If you take proactive measures to promote socially desirable behavior or to prevent socially undesirable behavior what kind of bystander are you?
If you react to socially undesirable behavior that you have witnessed what kind of bystander are you?
A division of human beings identified by the possession of traits that are transmissible by descent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessing these traits as a distinctive human genotype.
Definition of Race
DoD Directive 1350.2
any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that favors one race or ethnic group (usually a majority group) over another (usually aminority group).
Farley's definition of racism
Which type of power may include the ability to reward and punish?
a. Reference Power
b. Formal power
c. Informal Power
d. Expert power
which base our power is established by the ability of the leader to give and receive information that is necessary to the successful functioning of the organization, or individual followers?
a. information power
b. referent power
c. reward power
d. expert power
which level of prejudice refers to the positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior?
a. action oriented
b. Isolate prejudice
c. cognitive prejudice
d. emotional prejudice
What are the 2 protected categories amended by the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
a. race, color
b. age and disability
c. race and National Origin
d. disability and religion
Age and Disability
which step in the process of blaming the victim looks at those who have a problem in order to separate them as a different group?
a. Step 1 - identify a social problem
b. Step 2 - study those affected by the problem
c. Step 3 - define the differences as the cause of the problem
d. Step 4 - initiate a program to correct the impact of the differences
Step 2 - study those affected by the problem
which statement defines the system
a. problem solving approach that broadly defines problems as being a part of or cause because by the system organization Society or community
b. organized set of doctrines ideas or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole
c. Persons who individually or collectively have suffered harm do to physical emotional or economic suffering
d. a reactive problem solving approach which narrowly defines problems in terms of the victim
organize setup doctrines ideas or printables usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic hole
___ is a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned
b. bystander effect
c. active bystanders
d. diffusion of responsibility
diffusion of responsibility
why do bystanders often hesitate to act
a. they believe someone else will take action
b. they fear to lose the status quo
c. they fear harassment charges
d. they lack leadership skills
they believe someone else will take action
what level of racism is described as policies and procedures that exist in an organization that systematically reflect racial inequalities
a. individual racism
b. intentional racism
c. institutional racism
d. unintentional racism
Which form of racism is an unconscious act that is not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm?
a. Unintentional racism
b. Institutional racism
c. Intentional racism
d. Individual racism
What are the two types of racism
- belief that one’s own race is superior to another
- behaviors that suppress the inferior race
- ractices, customs, rules, and standards that unnecessarily disadvantage people
What type of racism is embedded in policies that have generally become accepted as normal and may or may not have been intentionally written to practice racism.
discrimination in hiring practices is an example of what kind of racism because it suppresses the inferior race
a practice is not a policy
What are the two forms of racism
Intentional: conscious act, usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm.
Unintentional: unconscious act that, while not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm, is still damaging
If a lack of understanding of the student’s background leads a teacher to misjudge the student through his or her own cultural lens and as a result, the student does poorly in class, what form of racism is this?
Racism which could lead to mental as well as physical injury, violent destruction, or even death because of its blatant, obvious, and intentionally harmful is _____ ?
Racism, such as sabotage and tokenism, which originates within established and respected forces in society and, therefore, receives far less public condemnation because it is hidden, usually subtle, and difficult to document and prove?
Racial attitude measures in which an individual with racist attitudes acts out bigoted beliefs through social distance, hostility, and derogatory beliefs.
Racial attitude measures exercised from 1965 to 1978 which used code words or symbols for Blacks.
Racial attitudes from 1978 expressed by the following statements:
Discrimination is a thing of the past
Blacks are pushing too hard, too fast, and into places where they are not wanted.
The tactics and demands of activists are unfair
recent gains are undeserved
prestige-granting institutions of society are giving Blacks more attention andstatus than they deserve
Racism is bad
The beliefs of modern racism do not qualify as racist because they are alleged tobe empirically grounded.
principal tenets of modern racism
List the three subtle forms of racial attitude measures.
symbolic racism (1965): symbols or code words used for Blacks
modern racism (1978): principle tenets of racism
aversion racism (1986): egalitarian beliefs, avoid close contact, rationalization, difficult to document
Racial attitude measures emerging around 1986 which typically avoid close contact with minorities or communicate their underlying negative attitudes in subtle, rationalizable ways, demonstrated in discomfort, uneasiness, fear, or avoidance of minorities rather than in outward hostility.
What are the two factors of racism
- internalethnocentrism, stereotyping, elitism, lack of understanding outside of self
- socialization, competition, visibility, contact
Factor of racism which stem from family, peers, social visibility, contact levels, mass media, unequal or competition
External factors of racism
judging other ethnic groups according to the standards and values of one’s own group
Ethnocentrism stems from a combination of several internal factors
In the Three Rs Syndrome, what does the first 'R' stand for?
Three Rs Syndrome
Awareness, Eduction, Participation, Legislation, Mass Media and Changes are strategies of what?
Strategies you can employ to combat racism in your military unit