APUSH exam review 1
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APUSH exam review 1
APUSH Exam Review
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for
the Plymouth colony.
Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included
both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He
developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt.
He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian
Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England
could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so
the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were
non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of
England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area
from the King of England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a
colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political
freedom and a representative government.
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed
to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control
of the government of the colony.
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s.
During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew
to ten times its earlier population.
John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and
served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong
religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was
best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize
the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first
. Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church
of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which
included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be
reformed, and so started their own congregations.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code
and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not
a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists
supported constitutional representative government and the separation of
church and state.
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the
Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and
practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The
Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals
instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave
Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the
colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies
who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace
themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church
22. Massachusetts School Law
23. Harvard founded
24. New England Confederation
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns
with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with
over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court.
Followed Puritan beliefs.
King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and
the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was
started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court
jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of
the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for
Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder
contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the
company’s profits and debts.
30. Headright system
31. John Smith
32. John Rolfe, tobacco
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were
given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They
were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline
helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married
Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia
and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at
Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after
the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an
army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then
marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
39. James Oglethorpe
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a
tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and
Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that
Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s
dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony
to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some
supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government
to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich
off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was
composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions
eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental
Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect.
The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by
an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor
of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island
- founders established churches
: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection
for Quakers. Maryland
: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free
from persecution. Rhode Island
: Formed to provide a haven for all
persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
59. Jonathan Edwards,
60. George Whitefield
61. William Tennant
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the
decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak
of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first
events to unify the colonies.
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful
and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and
the torments of Hell.
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening.
Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great
Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England.
The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact
on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through
1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with
the idea that national strength and economic security comes from
exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided
countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their
manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the
colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from
competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they
were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of
the ship were British.
72. Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships
from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for
slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was
known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In
the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the
ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the
colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies.
The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of
molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The
British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants
81. Salem witch trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem,
Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18
people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved
admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
84. Indentured servants
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become
indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in
exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set
length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and
funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to
bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first
appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet.
Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and
spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method.
Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics,
and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many
members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in
favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws
without the direct intervention of God.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual
and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded
by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The
British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or
crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total
control over them.