APUSH exam review 1
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- 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for
- the Plymouth colony.
Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included
both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
- A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He
- developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt.
- He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian
Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
- The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England
- could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so
- the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were
- non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of
- England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area
- from the King of England.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
- 1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a
- colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political
- freedom and a representative government.
- 1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed
- to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control
- of the government of the colony.
- Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s.
- During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew
- to ten times its earlier population.
John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
- 1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and
- served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong
- religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was
- best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize
- the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first
. Separatists, non-separatists
- Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church
- of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which
- included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be
- reformed, and so started their own congregations.
- Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code
- and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not
- a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists
- supported constitutional representative government and the separation of
- church and state.
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
- The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the
- Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and
- practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The
- Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
- She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals
- instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave
- Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the
- colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
- The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies
- who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace
- themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church
22. Massachusetts School Law
23. Harvard founded
24. New England Confederation
- First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns
- with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with
- over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
- 1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court.
- Followed Puritan beliefs.
King Philip’s War
- 1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and
- the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was
- started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court
- jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of
- the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for
Joint stock company
- A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder
- contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the
- company’s profits and debts.
30. Headright system
31. John Smith
32. John Rolfe, tobacco
- Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were
- given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They
- were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
- Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline
- helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
- He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married
- Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia
- and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful
- 1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at
- Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after
- the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an
- army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then
- marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
39. James Oglethorpe
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
- Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a
- tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and
- Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that
- Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s
- dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony
- to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
- 1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some
- supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government
- to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich
- off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was
- composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions
- eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
- Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental
- Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect.
- The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by
- an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
- 1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor
- of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French
- Protestant) refugees.
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island
- - founders established churches
- Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection
- for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free
- from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all
- persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
59. Jonathan Edwards,
60. George Whitefield
61. William Tennant
- Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the
- decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak
- of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first
- events to unify the colonies.
- Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful
- and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
- Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and
- the torments of Hell.
- Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New
- A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening.
- Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
- The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great
- Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England.
- The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact
on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through
- 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with
- the idea that national strength and economic security comes from
- exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided
- countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their
- manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the
- colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
- British regulations designed to protect British shipping from
- competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they
- were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of
- the ship were British.
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships
- from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for
- slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was
- known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In
- the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the
- ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the
- colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies.
- The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of
- molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The
- British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants
- ignored it.
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem,
- Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18
- people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved
- admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
84. Indentured servants
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
- People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become
- indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in
- exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set
- length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
- Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and
- funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to
- bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first
- appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the
- An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet.
- Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and
- spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method.
- Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics,
- and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many
- members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in
- favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws
- without the direct intervention of God.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual
- and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded
- by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The
- British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or
- crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total
- control over them.
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