APUSH exam review 1

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APUSH exam review 1
2010-05-05 19:29:50
APUSH Exam Review

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  1. Mayflower Compact
    • 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for
    • the Plymouth colony.
  2. Church of England (Anglican Church)
  3. The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included
    both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
  4. William Bradford
    • A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He
    • developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt.
    • He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian
    • attacks.
  5. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
    • The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England
    • could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so
    • the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were
    • non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of
    • England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area
    • from the King of England.
  6. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • 1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a
    • colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political
    • freedom and a representative government.
  7. Cambridge Agreement
    • 1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed
    • to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control
    • of the government of the colony.
  8. Puritan migration
    • Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s.
    • During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew
    • to ten times its earlier population.
  9. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
    • 1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and
    • served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong
    • religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was
    • best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize
    • the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first
    • president.
  10. . Separatists, non-separatists
    • Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church
    • of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which
    • included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be
    • reformed, and so started their own congregations.
  11. Calvinism
    • Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code
    • and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not
    • a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists
    • supported constitutional representative government and the separation of
    • church and state.
  12. Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
    • The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the
    • Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and
    • practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The
    • Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
  13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
    • She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals
    • instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave
    • Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the
    • colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
  14. Half-way Covenant
    • The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies
    • who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace
    • themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church
    • affairs.
  15. 22. Massachusetts School Law

    23. Harvard founded

    24. New England Confederation
    • First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns
    • with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with
    • over 100 families had to found a grammar school.

    • 1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court.
    • Followed Puritan beliefs.
  16. King Philip’s War
    • 1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and
    • the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was
    • started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court
    • jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of
    • the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for
    • expansion.
  17. Joint stock company
    • A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder
    • contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the
    • company’s profits and debts.
  18. 30. Headright system

    31. John Smith

    32. John Rolfe, tobacco
    • Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were
    • given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They
    • were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

    • Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline
    • helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

    • He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married
    • Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia
    • and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful
    • colony.
  19. Bacon’s Rebellion
    • 1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at
    • Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after
    • the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an
    • army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then
    • marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
  20. 39. James Oglethorpe
    40. Carolinas
    41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
    42. Charleston
    • Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a
    • tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and
    • Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that
    • Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s
    • dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony
    • to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

    • 1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some
    • supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government
    • to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich
    • off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was
    • composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions
    • eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.

    • Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental
    • Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect.
    • The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by
    • an aristocracy which owned most of the land.

    • 1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor
    • of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French
    • Protestant) refugees.
  21. 57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island
    • - founders established churches
    • Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection
    • for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free
    • from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all
    • persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews
  22. 58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
    59. Jonathan Edwards,
    60. George Whitefield
    61. William Tennant
    • Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the
    • decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak
    • of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first
    • events to unify the colonies.

    • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful
    • and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
    • Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and
    • the torments of Hell.

    • Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New
    • Lights."

    • A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening.
    • Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
  23. 63. Old Lights, New Lights
    • The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great
    • Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England.
    • The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
  24. 69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact
    on the colonies
  25. Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through
    • 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with
    • the idea that national strength and economic security comes from
    • exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided
    • countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their
    • manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the
    • colonies to buy them.
  26. 70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
    • British regulations designed to protect British shipping from
    • competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they
    • were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of
    • the ship were British.
  27. 72. Triangular Trade
  28. The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships
    • from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for
    • slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was
    • known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In
    • the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the
    • ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
  29. 75. Molasses Act, 1733
  30. British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the
    • colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies.
    • The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of
    • molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The
    • British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants
    • ignored it.
  31. 81. Salem witch trials
  32. Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem,
    • Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18
    • people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved
    • admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
  33. 84. Indentured servants
    85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
    86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
    • People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become
    • indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in
    • exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set
    • length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

    • Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and
    • funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to
    • bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first
    • appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the
    • colonies.

    • An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet.
    • Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
  34. 95. The Enlightenment
  35. A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and
    • spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method.
    • Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics,
    • and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many
    • members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in
    • favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws
    • without the direct intervention of God.
  36. 98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
  37. Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual
    • and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded
    • by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The
    • British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or
    • crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total
    • control over them.