AP US History

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AP US History
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  1. Pre-Columbian Era
    Time before Columbus's arrival.
  2. Native Americans
    American Indians who populated the New World when Columbus arrived.
  3. Bering Strait
    Pathway that Asian immigrants may have taken to get to the New World around 20-40,000 years ago; the body of water was frozen and thus acted as a pathway for the immigrants to follow into Alaska and the rest of the continent.
  4. Native Americans on New World before Comubus
    1-5 million in Canada and US, 20 million in Mexico; belief in animism and reverence for nature; limited impact on environment; rugged areas had people who devoted energy to suvival while theess rugged areas had people developing societies, religions, and craft work; every tribe independent of eachother; slow to unite against European settlers.
  5. Norse People
    First Europeans to arrive in the New World; Leif Eriksson, and Bjarni Herjolfsson for example.
  6. Contact Period
    Time when Europe sustained contact with the Americas and introduced a widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, diseases, and ideas.
  7. Colonies
    Territory settled and controlled by a foreign power; Norse couldn't make them because they lacked the technology; caused as a result of Columbus's trip to New World.
  8. Spain During Early Colonial Era
    THE colonial power; had conquistadors who plowed through Native Americans and conquered lots of territory; strong navy: the Spanish Armada, which kept other countries from exploring; had encomiendas and helped kill Indians by bringing smallpox; they Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588 by the English navy resulting in their loss of power and more French and English colonization; tried to convert Indians to Roman Catholicism.
  9. Conquistadors
    Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
  10. Spanish Armada During the 16th Century
    Spanish navy that kept other Europeans from settling in the New World; defeated in 1588, resulting in a loss of Spanish power and an increase in French and English colonization.
  11. Encomiendas
    A piece of land or a village given to Spanish settlers with all the Indians included; used to control the Native Americans.
  12. Smallpox
    Deadly disease that killed Native Americans when introduced to it by the Spanish conquistadors.
  13. Sir Walter Raleigh
    Founded the lost colony, Roanoke Island in 1587.
  14. Roanoke
    The "Lost Colony" founded in 1587 by Sir Walter Raleigh, but was gone in 1590.
  15. Jamestown
    First attempt at conization by the British since Roanoke; 1607 was when it was founded; joint-stock company for the Virginia Company; nearly perished but for John Smith's leadership.
  16. Joint-Stock Company
    Group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the king.
  17. Virginia Company
    Company that founded the first official English settlement, Jamestown; named for the Virgin Mary; led to the naming of the Virginia colony.
  18. Captain John Smith
    Imposed harsh martial law to keep Jamestown alive; "Those who will not work shall ont eat"; removed from power during the Starving Time of 1609-1610.
  19. Starving Time
    1609-1610; A time when colonists resorted to cannibalism because there was no food left.
  20. Powhatan Confederacy
    Group of Indian tribes who saved the colony by teaching the Jamestoen colonists what to plant and how; cheif's daughter, Pocahontas, married John Rolfe in 1614 and eased some tension, creating an alliance; alliance forgotten once more land was needed for tobacco, and the group was killed by English "Indian Fighters" in 1644.
  21. John Rolfe
    Married Pocahontas and introduced tobacco to Jamestown and thus to England.
  22. Tobacco
    Introduced by John Rolfe; very popular in England; saved Jamestown; destroys the soil and this requires constant expansion; led to plantation slavery in 1619; cash crop.
  23. Chesapeake
    Named after the bay; new settlements around Jamestown; area is now Virginia and Maryland; people came because of financial reasons.
  24. Indentured Servitude
    Started by overpopulation in England, famine, disease, and poverty; in exchange for free passage to the New World, servants typically promised 7 years of labor, after which they got their freedom; some got a small piece of property when they left servitude allowing them to survive and vote; nearly half of the servants died during servitude; very popular option.
  25. Headright System
    Introduced in 1618 by Virginia Company; meant to attract new settlers and address the labor shortage created by the emergence of tobacco farming; a colonists and potential settlers were given a tract of land about 50 acres large, and men already settled in Virginia were given 100 acres or two headrights; the basis for an emerging aristocracy in colonial Virginia; hindered the development of democracy because land was the basis of wealth and power.
  26. House of Burgesses
    Established in 1619; allowed any property-holding white male to vote; decisions had to be approved by the Virginia Company.
  27. Slavery
    Began in 1619 in English colonies.
  28. French Colonization of North America
    • Founded Quebec City in 1608; tried to convert Indians to Roman Catholicism; spread smallpox and killed many natives; exploring land as much as possible; few French settlers came to North America; most single
    • men; some married Indians; stayed on the move; "coureurs du bois" were fur trappers; French didn't really settle too much because the Edict of Nantes gave them equal religious rights in France.
  29. Edict of Nantes
    Gave the French Protestants, Hugenots, religious toleration, thus keeping them in the country.
  30. Puritanism
    Caused by a desire to purify the Anglican Church of Ran Catholic practices.
  31. Puritans
    Part of the puritan movement; needed a new place to stay.
  32. Separatists
    Left England because of the corruption of the English church; went to Holland first, then went to the New World aboard the Mayflower in 1620; set for Virginia, landed in Massachusetts; created the Mayflower Compact and settled in Plymouth, where they had landed; called Pilgrims.
  33. Mayflower
    Ship that the Separatists/Pilgrims took to the New World.
  34. Mayflower Compact
    First document that said legal power came from the governed, not God; created a legal authority and assembly; basic legal system for the colony.
  35. Pilgrims
    Separatists who travelled to the New World, signed the Mayflower Compact, received help from the Pokanokets.
  36. Absolutists
    A form of monarchists who believed that power came from God, not the governed.
  37. Squanto
    Translator for the pilgrims and his tribe, the Pokanokets.
  38. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    Established in 1629; Congregationalists; began the Great Puritan Migration.
  39. Congregationalists
    Puritans who wanted reform for the Anglican Church from within; founded Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  40. The Great Puritan Migration
    Massachusetts Bay developed along Puritan ideals.
  41. John Winthrop
    Led the Great Puritan Migration by gibing speeches.
  42. Covenant
    An agreement to do or not to do something; central to Puritan philosophy politically and religiously; government a covenant with people, work to serve as a communal ideal, the Puritan church was to be served.
  43. Roger Williams
    Minister in Salem Bay settlement; taught controversial principles such as one that stated the church and state should be separated; was banished by the Puritans and moved to Rhode Island and founded a new colony; free religion there, and did not require voters to be church members.
  44. Anne Hutchinson
    Proponent of antinomianism, the belief that faith and God's grace - as opposed to the observance of moral law and performance of good deeds - suffice to earn one a place among the "elect"; challenged Puritan beliefs and the authority of the Puritan clergy; she was intelligent and well-educated, and powerful as well; tried for heresy, convicted and banished.
  45. Puritan Immigration to the New World in 1649-1660
    Puritans wouldn't immigrate to the New World because Oliver Cromwell was on the British throne, so the Puritans had everything they needed in Britain; when he died and the Stuarts regained their throne two years later, immigration began again.
  46. Oliver Cromwell
    Ruled as Lord Protector of England from 1649-1658 (when he died); represented the culmination of the English Civil Wars; ruled England as a republic with a constitution; best-known and most respected learder for the Puritans.
  47. English Civil Wars
    Won by the Puritans; ended when Cromwell took power.
  48. Interregnum
    "Between kings"; from 1658-1660 when Cromwell was dead, but Stuarts had not yet reagained their throne; Puritans didn't immigrate during this time because England had everything they wanted; ended when Stuarts returned to the throne and Puritans emigrated to the New World, bringing with them ideas of revolution.
  49. New England VS Chesapeake
    New England:

    • 1) Entire families emigrated
    • 2) More hospitable climate; longer life expectancy and larger families
    • 3) Stronger sense of community
    • 4) No tobacco
    • 5) Larger towns closer together
    • 6) MORE religious than Chesapeake

    Chesapeake

    • 1) Immigrants often single males
    • 2) Worse climate, lower life epectancy and smaller families
    • 3) Less sense of community
    • 4) Tobacco as cash crop
    • 5) Smaller towns that were more spread-out farming communities
    • 6) Less religious
  50. Connecticut Valley
    Fertile area with lots of access to the sea for trade; occupied by the Pequots when the Massachusetts Bay Colony wanted the land; started the Pequot War.
  51. Pequots
    Located in Connecticut Valley when the Massachusetts Bay Colony wanted more land; they attacked Wakefield and killed nine people; sparked the colonists to attack them; colonists killed 400, lots of women and children; nearly destroyed gorup; known as the Pequot War.
  52. Pequot War
    Caused by colonists overreacting to land; Pequots located in Connecticut Valley where the Massachusettsy Bay Colony wanted to expand to; Pequots attacked Wakefield and killed nine people; Colonists then attacked Pequots killing 400, lots of women and children.
  53. Proprietorship
    Colony owned by one person who usually received the land as a gift from the king.
  54. Connecticut
    Proprietorship that received its charter in 1635 and produced the Fundamental Orders.
  55. Fundamental Orders
    Considered the first written constitution in British North America; created by Connecticut colonists.
  56. Maryland
    Proprietorship; granted to Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore; was tolerant to all Christians; became first major Catholic enclave in the New World; Protestants eventually outnumbered Catholics there causing the Act of Toleration in 1649 to be passed.
  57. Act of Toleration
    Created in 1649 by Maryland to protect Christians from the Protestants who outnumbered them.
  58. New York
    Royal gift to James, King Charles II brother; Dutch Republic was the largest commercial power during the 17th century and had an initial settlement since 1614 in New York, called New Netherland; Charles II waged war against the Dutch in 1664; they surrendered giving James, the Duke of York, the land; he became king in 1685, making New York a royal colony; the Dutch were allowed to stay there.
  59. New Netherland
    Dutch's initial settlement; established in 1614; given to James, Duke of York.
  60. New Amsterdam
    A fort at the mouth of the Hudson River in 1626; today is NYC.
  61. New Jersey
    Originally given by Charles II to a few friends who sold it to investors; many were Quakers.
  62. Pennsylvania
    William Penn, a Quaker, got land from Charles II; Charles wanted Penn as far away as possible because he was a Quaker; Penn established religious freedom and civil liberties; Penn advertised for his colony, making it one of the fastest growing of the early colonies.
  63. William Penn
    Founded the Quaker colony Pennsylvania; wanted to keep religious freedom and treat Indians fairly, but was foiled by his son.
  64. Carolina
    Proprietary Colony; split into North and South.
  65. North Carolina
    Settled by Virginians and developed into a Virginia-like colony.
  66. South Carolina
    Settled by descendants of Englishmen who colonized Barbados.
  67. Barbados
    Primary export was sugar; plantations worked by slaves; settlers from here marked the beginning of the slave era in the colonies.
  68. Royal Colonies
    Ownership was taken over by the king who could exert greater control over their governments; converted from proprietorships; by the Revolution, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were NOT royal colonies.
  69. Reasons for Africans as Slaves Instead of Indians
    • 1) Blacks couldn't escape bbecause they didn't know the land
    • 2) Easy to capture
    • 3) Natives had women cultivate as opposed to the men, causing gender barriers
    • 4) Dark skin made them easy to identify
  70. Middle Passage
    Middle leg of the Triangular trade that brought slaves to the New World.
  71. Triangular Trade Route
    Route that traded slaves from Africa to the New World, and goods from the New World to Europe; inhumane conditions aboard for slaves; some committed suicide; about one fifth of slaves would die en route.
  72. Labor-Intensive Crops in the South
    Tobacco; rice; indigo.
  73. French and Indian War
    Also called the Seven Years War.
  74. Salutary Neglect
    Also known as benign neglect; time before the French and Indian War where colonies were left alone from Britain, they traded but they mostly left the colonies alone; developed a degree of autonomy, fueling revolutionary ideas; colonies "grew up" during this time and developed an American identity.
  75. Mercantilism
    Idea that the economic power was rooted in a favorable balance of trade (exporting more than you import) and control of specie; most Europeans who thought about economics liked this idea; Amerivan colonies were seen as markets and valued sources of raw materials that would have otherwise have been bought from a foreign country.
  76. Specie
    Hard currency, such as gold coins; mercantilism said that these would be controlled to keep a favorable balance of trade.
  77. Protective Tariffs
    Used to guarantee a favorable balance of trade; initiated by the British and were taxes on imports that might compete with English goods; one tariff was the Navigation Acts; these tariffs were passed between 1651 and 1673.
  78. Navigation Acts
    Required colonists to buy goods only from England and to sell certain products solely to England; also had them import any non-English goods via the English ports and pay a tax on these imports; prohibited colonies from manufacturing goods that England already produced; used by the English to control colonial commerce; worked, but people still smuggled; this was followed by the Vice-Admirality Courts and Boards of Trade which enforced them, but the colonists did not protest because at the time they were already entirely dependent on Britain.
  79. Vice-Admiralty Courts
    Military-style courts; defendents not entitled to jury; set up by British to strengthen the Navigation Acts; cases were those that dealt with violations of the Navigation Acts.
  80. Boards of Trade
    Set up by the British to enforce the Navigation Acts; regulated commerce; reviewed colonial legislation and revoked laws that conflicted with British law; administered government appointments.
  81. Governor in Colonies
    Appointed by the king or the proprietor; dependent on colonial legislatures; couldn't leave the New World and all decisions relied on the cooperation of the colonists.
  82. Legislatures in the Colonies
    Controlled the money that the governors were dependent on and finalized decisions.
  83. Bicameral Legislation in the Colonies
    Consists of a Lower House (House of Representatives) and an Upper House which was made up of appointees; lower house had its members directly elected and controlled government salaries and tax legislation; upper house had its members appointed by the local population, this house acted as advisors to the government and protected the interests of colonial landowners; all colonies had a bicameral legislation except Pennsylvania.
  84. The New England Confederation
    Colonist effort toward a centralized government; had no real power, but did offer advice to the northeastern colonies and provided colonists from different settlements the opporotunity to meet and to discuss their mutual problems.
  85. Bacon's Rebellion
    Virginia's western frontier during the 1670's; caused when the Virginians were running out of room and wanted to invade into Indian territory to gain land; led by Nathaniel Bacon and attacked local tribes; then burned Jamestown; precursor to the American Revolution (colonists pushed westward, in search of land for greater political autonomy); rebellion ended when Bacon died.
  86. Nathaniel Bacon
    Started Bacon's Rebellion over land; helped burn Jamestown and attack Indians; died of dysentery.
  87. King Philip's War
    Caused when the Pokanokets led attackes on colonial settlements for intruding on their territory; led by Metacomet, also known as King Philip; war created an alliance with the Pokanokets and two other tribes; when Metacomet died, the alliances fell and many of the tribes were sold into slavery in the West Indies.
  88. Stono Uprising
    Slave Rebellion in 1739; twenty slaves stole guns and ammo, killed storekeepers and planters and freed many slaves; the rebels, now 100, fled to Florida, but were caught by the colonial militia and were captured and executed; resulted in stricter laws to govern slave behavior.
  89. Salem Witch Trials
    1692; not first witch trials in New England; more than 130 "witches" were jailed or executed in Salem.
  90. The Dominion of New England
    English government attempt to clamp down on illegal trade; Massachusetts' charter was revoked; assemblies dissolved; ended with the Glorious Revolution; caused the end of mass hysterias such as the Salem Witch Trials.
  91. Glorious Revolution
    England overthrew James II and replaced him with William and Mary in 1691; Massachusetts became a royal colony; suffrage given to Protestants, weakening Puritan power.
  92. King William's War
    Called that in the colonies; called the War of the League of Augsburg in England; war against French and Native Americans on the Canadian border; followed the Glorious Revolution.
  93. Halfway Covenant
    Puritan zeal was fading; changed the rules governing Puritan baptisms (prior to this, they had to experience the gift of God's grace to have children baptized); now any children whose parents were baptized were baptized, but those who had not experienced God's grace couldn't vote.
  94. Mass Hysteria in Salem in 1692
    Caused by religious, economic, and gender factors; ended when accusers, mostly teenage girls, accused some of the colony's most prominent citizens of consorting witht eh Devil, turning town leaders against them.
  95. Great Awakening
    A wave of religious revival led by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; response of devout people to the Enlightenment.
  96. Jonathan Edwards
    Led the Great Awakening movement by preaching predeterministic doctrines of Calvinism and was famous for his depictions of Hell.
  97. George Whitefield
    Led the Great Awakening by preaching Christianity based on emotionalism and spirituality.
  98. Evangelism
    The preaching or promulgation of the gospel; missionary zeal, purpose, or activity.
  99. Enlightenment
    European intellectual movement that borrowed heavily from ancient philosophy and emphasized rationalism over emotionalism or spirituality; movement away from religious beliefs.
  100. Ben Franklin
    Typified Enlightenment ideals in America; became a wealthy printer and wrote Poor Richard's Almanack coined many phrases and aphorisms; pioneered in electricity work; invented bifocals, the lightning rod, the Franklin stove; founded the colonies' first fire department, post office, and public library; served as an ambassador in Europe and negotiated teh alliance with the French and the peach treaty that ended the Revolutionary War.

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