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· Spectral doppler, what is above the base line is
____ the TDR and what is below is _____ from the TDR
•Negative = away and Positive = Towards
Spectral doppler Displays flow velocity in...
m/sec or cm/sec
In spectral doppler the base line represents:
where 0 velocity or no flow is
Typical frequencies for a echo transducer
2.5, 3.5, and 5 MHz
- Lack of echoes. Any fluid
- filled structures will appear anechoic in ultrasound (i.e. Left Ventricle and
- Carotid artery)
A structure showing bright, strong echoes. For example, Pericardium and Arterial walls
- A structure showing low intensity echoes such as
- myocardium or muscle tissue.
- presence of echoes such as
- tissue or pathology present in an anechoic area.
Echo uses a ____ TDR
Vascular uses a _____ TDR
- •All signals that returned must be compressed
- into a smaller range of intensities that can be converted into shades of gray.
- Inverse image
- Contrast levels
- Edge enhancement
Pulse Repitition Frequency
How many pulses can be sent an recieved
Probe commonly used today for adult vascular
between 7.0 and 12 MHz
Continuous wave transducer (aka pencil transducer & pedoff) frequency
A curved array transducer used in abdominal. Approximate operating frequency
4- 9 MHz
From the left ventricle arises
The AORTA, it pumps the blood out of the heart
The inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) return the blood to the
The pulmonary artery takes the blood from the ____ ventricle to the _____
the pulmonary veins take the blood from the _____ to the ______ ______
Lungs, Left atrium
The normal adult heart beat
PMH must include
Prior MIs or applicable surgeries
MURMURS are decribed with what terms..
- Timing ( systolic, diastolic)
- Location ( Apex, LSB)
- Loudness ( grades 1-6)
- Quality ( harsh, regurgitant, ejection)
LONG axis shows the __________ aorta
How to get to the apical 2 chamber from the 4?
Counterclockwise rotation from Apical 4 chamber.
Apical 2 chamber shows
All the left side
- LV anterior and inferior walls (good view for wall motion),
- coronary sinus, LA, LA appendage
Apical long axis
Same view as PLAX, just from a different perspective
LV posterior apex, septum, posterior wall MV, LVOT,AoV, Asc. Ao., LA
- Same as Apical 4 Chamber except angled more anterior (toward chest wall)
- Good for evaluation of LVOT, AoV, subaortic stenosis
- Beam angled toward left shoulder
- Good view to demonstrate:
- RV free wall
- RV function and size
- Effusion and tamponade
- IVS/IAS septal defects
- Not always standard
- good for evaluating the aorta (ascending, arch, and descending)
THe pacemaker of the heart
Where is the SA NODE located?
on top of the right atrium near where the superior vena cava enters.
What is the job of the SA NODE
produces nerve impulses that cause both atriums to contract. The normal depolarization rate is 60-100 beats per minute. The SA node also sends impulses to the Atrioventicular node, or AV node. There, it delays the impulse from the SA node so the ventricles have time to fill up before contraction.