MS201 midterm 1

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Jweightm
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179734
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MS201 midterm 1
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2012-10-25 02:55:32
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MS201 midterm
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  1. ·  Spectral doppler, what is above the base line is
    ____ the TDR and what is below is _____ from the TDR
    Towards, AWAY

    •Negative = away and Positive = Towards
  2. Spectral doppler Displays flow velocity  in...
    m/sec or cm/sec
  3. In spectral doppler the base line represents:
    where 0 velocity or no flow is
  4. Typical frequencies for a echo transducer
    2.5, 3.5, and 5 MHz
  5. Anechoic
    • Lack of echoes. Any fluid
    • filled structures will appear anechoic in ultrasound (i.e. Left Ventricle and
    • Carotid artery)
  6. Hyperechoic
    A structure showing bright, strong echoes.  For example, Pericardium and Arterial walls
  7. Hypoechoic
    • A structure showing low intensity echoes such as
    • myocardium or muscle tissue.
  8. Echogenicity
    • presence of echoes such as
    • tissue or pathology present in an anechoic area.
  9. Echo uses a ____ TDR
    Sector array
  10. Vascular uses a _____ TDR
    Linear array
  11. Compression
    • •All signals that returned must be compressed
    • into a smaller range of intensities that can be converted into shades of gray.
  12. Post Processing
    • Inverse image
    • Contrast levels
    • Edge enhancement
    • persistance
  13. Pulse Repitition Frequency
    How many pulses can be sent an recieved
  14. Probe commonly used today for adult vascular
    exams frequency
    between 7.0 and 12 MHz
  15.  Continuous wave transducer (aka pencil transducer & pedoff) frequency
    5MHz
  16. A curved array transducer used in abdominal. Approximate operating frequency
    4- 9 MHz
  17. From the left ventricle arises
    The AORTA, it pumps the blood out of the heart
  18. The inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) return the blood to the
    Right atrium
  19. The pulmonary artery takes the blood from the ____ ventricle to the _____
    Right, Lungs
  20. the pulmonary veins take the blood from the _____ to the ______ ______
    Lungs, Left atrium
  21. The normal adult heart beat
    60-100 bpm
  22. “P” wave
    Atrial Contraction
  23. QRS
    complex
    Vetricular contraction
  24. “T”
    wave
    Ventricular relaxtion
  25. PMH must include
    Prior MIs or applicable surgeries
  26. MURMURS are decribed with what terms..
    • Timing ( systolic, diastolic)
    • Location ( Apex, LSB)
    • Loudness ( grades 1-6)
    • Pitch
    • Duration
    • Quality ( harsh, regurgitant, ejection)
  27. LONG axis shows the __________ aorta
    ascending
  28. How to get to the apical 2 chamber from the 4?
    Counterclockwise rotation from Apical 4 chamber.
  29. Apical 2 chamber shows
    All the left side

    • LV anterior and inferior walls (good view for wall motion),
    • coronary sinus, LA, LA appendage
  30. Apical long axis
    Same view as PLAX, just from a different perspective

    LV posterior apex, septum, posterior wall MV, LVOT,AoV, Asc. Ao., LA
  31. Apical 5
    • Same as Apical 4 Chamber except angled more anterior (toward chest wall)
    • Good for evaluation of LVOT, AoV, subaortic stenosis
  32. Subcostal
    • Beam angled toward left shoulder
    • Good view to demonstrate:
    • RV free wall
    • RV function and size
    • Effusion and tamponade
    • IVS/IAS  septal defects
  33. Suprasternal Window
    • Not always standard
    • good for evaluating the aorta (ascending, arch, and descending)
  34. THe pacemaker of the heart
    SA NODE
  35. Where is the SA NODE located?
    on top of the right atrium near where the superior vena cava enters.
  36. What is the job of the SA NODE
    produces nerve impulses that cause both atriums to contract. The normal depolarization rate is 60-100 beats per minute.  The SA node also sends impulses to the Atrioventicular node, or AV node. There, it delays the impulse from the SA node so the ventricles have time to fill up before contraction.  

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