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What are Cluster A personality disorders?
Behaviors that are described as odd or eccentric:
What personality disorders go under Cluster A?
- Paranoid personality disorder
- Schizoid personality disorder
- Schizotypal personality disorder
What are Cluster B personality disorders?
Behaviors that are described as dramatic, emotional, or erratic.
What persoanlity disorders go under Cluster B?
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Borderline persoality disorder
- Histrionic personality disorder
- Narcissistic personality disorder
What are Cluster C personality disorders?
Behaviors that are described as anxious or fearful
What persoanlity disorders go under Cluster C?
- Avoidant personality disorder
- Dependent personality disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive persoanlity disorder
Definition of Paranoid personality disorder?
A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness, such that the motives of others are interperted as malevolen
When does paranoid persoanlity disorder usually present?
Condition begins in early adulthood and presents in a variety of contexts
Is paranoid personality disorder more common in men or women?
Paranoid personality disorder clinical picture?
- Constantly on guard
- Ready for real or imagined threat
- Trusts no one
- Constantly tests the honesty of others
- Magnifies and distorts cues in the environment
Etilogical implications of paranoid personality disorder?
- Possible hereditary link
- Subject to early parental antagonism and aggression
Definition of Schizoid personality disorder?
Characterized primarily by a profound defect in the ability to form personal relatioships or to respond to others in any meaningful, emotional way
What is the gender ratio of Schizoid personality disorder?
Ratio unknown, but diagnosed more often in men
Clinical picture of Schizoid personality disorder?
- Indifferent to others
- Aloof and emotionally cold
- Appears shy, anxious, or uneasy in presence of others
- Inappropriately serious
- Difficulty acting light-hearted
Etiological implications of Schizoid personality disorder?
- Possibly hereditary
- Childhood that was bleak, cold, unempathetic, notably lacking in nurturing
Definition of Schizotypal personality disorder?
- Once described as "latent schizophrenics", their behavior is odd and eccentric but does not decompensate to the level of schizophrenia.
- It is a graver form of the schizoid personality pattern
Clinical picture of Schizotypal personality disorder?
- Bland/Apathetic manner
- Magical thinking
- Ideas of reference
- Bizarre speech patterns
Etiological implications of Schizotypal personality disorder?
- Possible hereditary factor
- Possible physiological influence such as anatomic deficits or neurochemical dysfunctions
- Childhood characterized by indefference, formality, discomfort with personal affection and closeness
Definition of Antisocial personality disorder?
A pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behavior that reflects a disregard for the rights of others
Is antisocial personality disorder more prevelent in men or women?
men @ 3% of population
Clinical picture of Antisocial personality disorder?
- Fails to sustain consistent employment
- Exploits and manipulates others for personal gain
- General disregard for the law
Definition of Borderline personality disorder?
Characterized by a pattern of intense and chaotic relationships with affective instability; Fluctuating and exterme attitudes regarding other people
Clinical picture of Borderline personality disorder?
- Fluctuating and extreme attitudes regarding other people
- Highly impulsive
- Emotionally unstable
- Lacks clear sense of identity
Definition of Histrionic personality disorder?
Characterized by colorful, dramatic, and extroverted behavior in excitable, emotional people
Histrionic personality disorder more common in men or women?
Clinical picture of Histrionic persoanlity disorder?
- Attention seeking
- Overly gregarious
- Difficulty forming close relationships
- Need for constant approval
Etiological implications for Histrionic personality disorder?
- Possible link to noradrenergic and serotonergic systems
- Possible hereditary factor
- Learned behavior patterns
Definition of Narcissistic personality disorder?
Characterized by an exaggerated sense of self worth, lack of empathy, and belief that they have inalienable rights to receive special consideration
Narcissistic personality disorder more common in which gender?
Clinical picture of Narcissistic persoanlity disorder?
- Overly self centered
- Exploits others to fulfill own desires
- Mood is usually optimistic
- Seems relaxed, cheerful, carefree, but can turn on a dime
Etiological implications of Narcissistic personality disorder?
- Childhood where their fears, failures, or dependency needs were responded to with criticism, disdain, or neglect
- Parents were often narcissistic
Definintion of Avoidant personality disorder?
Characterized by extreme sensitivity to rejection and social withdrawl
Avoidant personality disorder more common in which gender?
Equal in both
Clinical picture in Avoidant personality disorder?
- Awkward/uncomfortable in social situations
- Desires close relationships, but avoids them for fear of rejection
Etiological implications of Avoidant personality disorder?
- Possible heretitary influence
- Parental rejection and criticism
Dependent personality disorder definition?
Characterized by a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
What gender and birth order is Dependent personality disorder most common in?
Clinical picture of Dependent personality disorder?
- Notable lack of self confidence apparent in voice, posture, mannerisms
- Overly generous/thoughtful while underplaying own attractiveness/achievements
- Avoids positions of responsibility
Etiological implications of Dependent personality disorder?
- Possible hereditary influence
- Stimulation and nurturance experienced exclusively from one source
- Singular attachment made by infant to exclusion of all others
Definition of Obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
Characterized by inflexibility about the way in which things must be done; Devotion to productivity at the exclusion of personal pleasure
What gender and birth order is Obsessive compulsive personality disorder most prevalent in?
Clinical picture of Obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
- Especially concerned with organization & efficiency
- Tends to be rigid and unbending
- Polite, formal social behavior
- Rank conscious
- Calm and controlled
- Ambivalence/conflict/hostility beneath
Etiological implications of Obsessive personality disorder?
- Overcontrol by parents
- Lack of positive reinforcement for acceptable behavior
- Frequent punishment for undesirable behavior
Definition of Passive aggressive personality disorder?
Exhibits a pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations
Clinical picture of Passive aggressive personality disorder?
- Passive resistance
- General obstructiveness
- Commonly switches roles between martyr, affronted, aggrieved, misunderstood, contrite, guilt ridden, sickly, over worked
Etiological implications Passive aggressive personality disorder
Etiological implications of Passive aggressiv epersonality disorder?
Contradictory parental attitudes and behavior
Where does the term "Borderline" come from?
Tendency of these clients to fall on the border between neuroses and psychoses
Nursing assessment of the Borderline personality?
- Always seems to be in state of crisis
- Affect is one of extreme intensity
- Frequent changeability
- Self destructive
What are Borderlines most strikingly identified by?
The intensity and instability of their affect and behavior
What are some common behaviors of Borderlines?
- Inability to be alone
- Clinging and distancing
Borderline biological etiology?
- Possible serotonergic defect
- Possible hereditary factor
Borderline psychosocial etiology?
- Childhood trauma
- Fixed in rapprochement phase of development (16-24 months)
Assessment of Antisocial personality disorder?
- Not often seen in clinical settings
- When seen, it's commonly a way to avoid legal consequences
- Sometimes admitted by court order for psych eval
Common behaviors of Antisocials?
- Cold, callous, intimidating
- Inconsistent work or academic performance
- Failure to conform to societal norms
- Cruel and malicious
- Unable to for satisfying relationships
Etiological implications of Antisocials?
- Possible genetic influence
- Sociopathic or alcoholic father
- Aggressive temperment as a child
- Parental deprivation during first 5 years of life
- Hx ADHD/Conduct disorder as child
- Extreme poverty