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What were 3 main difficulties in South that Reconstruction needed to address?
- 1) Many farms/cities/railroads were destroyed
- 2) Financial system destroyed (Confederate $ worthless)
- 3) Society changed: before: white/slaves, now: freedmen with no land/job/education.
What did Congress think of Lincoln's 10% Plan?
It was too generous to the South
What were the names of the 4 Reconstruction Plans?
- 1) Lincoln's 10% Plan
- 2) Wade-Davis Bill
- 3) Johnson's Presidential Reconstruction
- 4) Radical Republican's Reconstruction Acts
What was the Freemen's Bureau?
- A law that provided
- 1) food, 2) clothing, 3) medical care, 4) help finding jobs and 5) helped set-up public schools.
What was the 13th Amendment?
What was the 14th Amendment?
All persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens.
What is the 15th Amendment?
All U.S. citizens are guaranteed the right to vote.
Who was Hiram Revels?
First African-American elected to the U.S. Senate (served a partial term).
Who was Blanche K. Bruce?
Second African-American elected to the U.S. Senate (first to serve a whole term).
What is amesty?
A pardon or forgiving for offenses.
When was Lincoln assassinated?
April 15th, 1865
Who assassinated President Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth (a southern actor)
Who became president when Lincoln was assassinated?
Andrew Johnson, the Vice President.
Why was Congress unhappy with Johnson's Reconstruction Plan?
- 1) Former Confederate leaders were elected to Congress,
- 2) African-Americans could not vote
- 3) Black Codes
What were the Black Codes?
- Southern laws restricting the rights of Freedmen, such as they couldn't vote, own guns, or serve on juries.
- The codes did allow legal marriage and ownership of property.
Who was Thaddeus Stevens?
Radical Rebuslican leader in the House of Representatives.
Who was Charles Sumner?
Radical Republican leader in the Senate.
What does impeach mean?
To remove an official from office due to misbehavior.
Was President Andrew Johnson impeached by Congress?
No, they fell one vote short.
Who became president in 1868?
General Ulyssis S. Grant.
During Radical Reconstruction, what 3 groups came to power in the South?
- 1) Carpetbaggers
- 2) Scalawags, and
- 3) Freedmen
What is a Carpetbagger?
- A northerner who went to the south during reconstruction
- 1) to make money or
- 2) to help with reforms
What is a scalawag?
A southern "traitor" who supported the new southern government.
What is a freedman?
An African-American who was freed by the Emancipation Proclamation.
During Radical Reconstruction, what 2 groups in the south opposed the changes?
- 1) Conservatives, and
- 2) Secret societies like the Ku Klux Klan.
Who were the Conservatives?
Southerners who wanted the south to change very little.
What was the Ku Klux Klan?
A secret society founded in 1866 that terrorized African-Americans and their supporters in the south.
What was a share cropper?
A freedmen or poor white who worked on someone else's land and paid for it by giving a share of the crops for payment. This kept them in poverty.
In what years did Reconstruction start and end?
What happened in the presidential election of 1876?
Neither Hayes nor Tilden won enough electorial votes. Congress eventually made Hayes president.
What did President Hayes do upon being elected?
He removed Federal troops from the South and effectively ended reconstruction.
How did the South restrict African-American voting after reconstruction?
- By implementing:
- 1) poll tax
- 2) literacy tests
- 3) grandfather clauses.
What is a poll tax?
Required voters to pay a fee each time they voted, keeping the poor African-Amreicans from voting.
What was the literacy test?
It required a voter to read and explain a difficult part of the Constitution, keeping uneducated African-Americans from voting.
What was the grandfather clause?
A way to allow more whites to vote. If a voter's father or grandfather had been eligible to vote, then the voter didn't have to take the literacy test.
What is segregation?
Separating people of different races.
What were the Jim Crow laws?
Laws passed in the south that separated (segregated) black and whites in schools, restaurants, theatres, trains, buses, playgrounds, hospitals and cemetaries, etc.
What was Plessy v. Ferguson?
A U.S. Supreme Court decision that OKed segregation (so long as the facilites were equal).
What is meant by Cycle of Poverty?
Having no way out of poverty. Even year you get more in debt.
When did Congress pass the first reconstruction act?
How did Congress oppose the Ku Klux Klan?
In 1870, Congress passed a law that outlawed the use of force to keep people from voting.
Why did Congress try to remove President Johnson from office?
The Republican's feared that he would not enforce the Reconstruction Acts as he was suppose to.
Who was Samual Tilden?
A democrat who ran for the president in 1876 and lost.
Who was Rutherford B. Hayes?
A republican who ran for the president in 1876 and eventually won.
Who were the Moderates?
Moderate republicans who made up the largest group in Congress and sided with the Radical Republicans to pass reconstruction laws.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 do?
- It gave citizenship to African-Americans.
- (Johnton vetoed it, but Congress over-rode it).
What did Congress do when they worried that the Supreme Court might overturn the Civil Rights law?
They proposed the 14th amendment.
Did reconstruction bring about rapid, medium or slow change?
Slow change in the south.
How did Hayes win the election of 1876 even though he received fewer popular votes than Tilden did?
He received more electorial votes which is what really matters in a US election.