Patho/pharm II- Exam 3- Heart failure (6 points)
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Disorder of the rate and rythm of the heart caused by a disturbance in the conduction system.
Define heart failure.
results from the hearts inability to increase the CO sufficiently to meet the body's metabolic need.
Define ejection fraction and what is a normal value?
- Ability of the heart to function as a pump.
- the ratio of the volume of blood the heart empties during systole to the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole expressed as a percentage usually between 50 and 80 percent
What are the 4 categories of causes of HF?
- 1. Alterations in contractility
- 2. Alterations in preload
- 3. Alterations in aferload
- 4. Alterations in the ratio of oxygen supply to oxygen demand
- Elevated systemic & pulmonary vascular resistance Myocardial infarction
- Valvular Heart Disease
- Restrictive Pericarditis
- Persistent tachyarrhythmias/Bradyarrhythmias
- Loss of atrial kick
- Collagen Vascular diseases: SLE, etc
- Infiltrative diseases: tumors, sarcoidosis
- Iatrogenic factors- drugs
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