Test3 Chap 10

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zkr168
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179758
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Test3 Chap 10
Updated:
2012-10-25 14:58:00
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Photosynthesis
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Photosynthesis
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  1. Autotrophs (producers)
    • self-feeders
    • sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings.
    • produce their organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment.
  2. Heterotrophs
    • obtain their organic material by the second major mode of nutrition - “other-feeding”
    • Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, are completelydependent, either directly or indirectly, on photoautotrophs for food, O2, by product of photosynthesis
  3. mesophyll
    • the tissue in the interior of the leaf where chloroplasts are found
    • mesophyll cell has 30 -40 chloroplasts
  4. stomata
    pores where Carbon dioxide enters the leaf, and oxygen exits
  5. stroma
    dense fluid inside envelope of 2 membranes
  6. thylakoids
    • made up of sacs, suspended in stroma
    • grana- stack of thylakoids
  7. Chlorophyll
    the green pigment that gives leaves their color, resides in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.
  8. Photosynthesis
    • 6 CO2  + 12 H2O + Light energy → C6H12O6 +  6 O2 + 6 H2O
    • 6 CO2  6 H2O  Light energy → C6H12O6  6 O2

    • reverse of cellular respiration
    • 2 steps: Light Reaction & Calcin Cycle
  9. Light Reaction
    • The Splitting of Water:
    • The chloroplast splits water into hydrogen and oxygen.
    • van Niel hypothesized that plants split H2O as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms, releasing O2 as a by-product.
    • Light carries  electrons across to ATP synthase(energy boost)
    • NADPH, a source of electrons as “reducing power” that can be passed along to an electron acceptor, reducing it, and ATP are produced
  10. Cellular Respiration in Photosyntheses
    • endergonic
    • electrons increase in potential energy as they move from water to sugar
  11. NADP+
    • acceptor of the electrons and hydrogen ions from water by light
    • 1 more phosphate group than NAP+
    • use solar power to reduce NADP+ to NADPH by adding a pair of electrons alongwith an H+.
  12. photophosphorylation
    light reactions also generate ATP, using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP
  13. The Light reaction
    • Take place in Thylakoid
    • The Splitting of Water:
    • The chloroplast splits water into hydrogen and oxygen.
    • van Niel hypothesized that plants split H2O as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms, releasing O2 as a by-product.
    • Light carries  electrons across to ATP synthase(energy boost)
    • NADPH, a source of electrons as “reducingpower” that can be passed along to an electron acceptor, reducing it, and ATP are produced
  14. Calvin Cycle
    carbon fixation - carbon into organic reducesthe fixed carbon to carbohydrate by the addition ofelectrons with help  of the NADPH and ATP produced by the light reactions.

    • Energy(NADPH + ATP) + CO2 -> Glucose
    • Take place in Stroma
  15. wavelength
    • electromagnetic spectrum - a nanometer (for gamma rays) to more than a kilometer (forradio waves)
    • visible light - 380 nmto 750 nm in wavelength
    • Photons - act like objects in that each of them has a fixed quantity of energy
    • GXUIMR- (VPBGYR)
  16. photosystem
    • light-harvesting complex : consists of various pigment molecules (which may include chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) bound to proteins.
    • Absorb light energy by chlorophyl a
    • PS II - 680nm
    • PS I - 700nm
  17. linear electron flow,
    flow of electrons through the photosystems and other molecularcomponents
  18. cyclic electron flow
    • - happens in Calvin Cycle
    • -Only ATP is produced
    • - NO NADPH or O2
  19. Calvin Cycle
    • Carbon Fixation
    • Reduction
    • Regerneration of CO2
    • Produce PGAL (Phosphoglyveralderyde) / G3P(Glyceraldhyde 3 Phosphate)
  20. Carbon Fixation
    (Rubisco) : attach ribulose bisphosphate(Rubp) to CO2 -> split to 2 PGAL (3 C)
  21. Reduction
    3PGAL + P(From ATP) -> 1.3 biphosphoglycerate (G3P) _> Glucose
  22. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP).
    five molecules of G3P are rearranged by the last steps ofthe Calvin cycle into three molecules of RuBP
  23. One G3P molecule
    Calvin cycle consumes total of 9 ATP nad 6 NADPH
  24. Photorespiration
    • rubisco adds O2 to the Calvin cycle instead of CO2. Peroxisomes and mitochondria rearrange and split this compound, releasing CO2
    • produce no ATP but consumes it
  25. C4 Plants
    mesophyll cells: enzyme PEP add CO2 to PEP -> CO2 -> 4 carbon group -> bundle sheath cell -> CO2 release  -> Calvin Cyc;e
  26. CAM Plants
    • Ex: Pineapple
    • open their stomata during the night  to take CO2 and close them during the day, just the reverse of how other plants behave
    • CAM, C4, andC3 plants all eventually use the Calvin cycle to make sugarfrom carbon dioxide.

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