APUSH Exam Review

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APUSH Exam Review
2010-05-05 19:29:27
APUSH Exam Review

The French & Indian War, beginning colonial unrest and Colonial unrest and the American Revolution
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  1. 103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
    104. A democratic society or not?
    105. Land claims and squabbles in North America´╗┐
    • Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the
    • American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to
    • life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those
    • rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten
    • "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the
    • government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a
    • right to rebel and institute a new government.

    • The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of
    • government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions
    • whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence,
    • the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic;
    • that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly
    • on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.

    • The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French
    • held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Both the British
    • and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.

    • 106. Differences between French and British colonization
    • The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms,
    • towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated.
    • The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians
    • (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior,
    • where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were
    • single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental
    • authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them
    • for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.´╗┐
  2. 109. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1743)
  3. Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights.
    • Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border.
    • The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut
    • off by the Spanish.
  4. 111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
  5. Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for
    • control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared
    • British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The
    • Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation
    • allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders.
    • Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining
    • French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied
    • with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in
    • return.
  6. 118. Treaty of Paris, 1763
    119. Pontiac’s Rebellion
    120. Proclamation of 1763
    • Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years
    • War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east
    • of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France
    • also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to
    • compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.

    • 1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an
    • Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the
    • western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The
    • attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

    • A proclamation from the British government which forbade British
    • colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which
    • required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back
    • east.
  7. 124. Navigation Acts
  8. A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the
    • colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control
    • and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax
    • revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and
    • Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the
    • war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the
    • colonies.
  9. 126. Sugar Act, 1764
    127. Molasses Act, 1733
    • Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the
    • Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and
    • molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of
    • the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the
    • first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was
    • strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it
    • illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean
    • colonies.

    • British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which
    • the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her
    • colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a
    • lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The
    • British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did
    • not pay it.
  10. 132. Stamp Act
  11. March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister
    • Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official
    • documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had
    • to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in
    • the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent
    • to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this
    • opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non-
    • importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal
    • the Stamp Act in 1766.
  12. 134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
    135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
    136. Sons of Liberty
    • 27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a
    • list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the
    • colonies.

    • An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who
    • gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the
    • colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to
    • declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most
    • famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me
    • death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and
    • 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be
    • adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.

    • A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed
    • in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and
    • burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept.
    • After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the
    • Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to
    • British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel
    • Adams and Paul Revere.
  13. 139. Declatory Act, 1766
    140. Quartering Act
    141. Townshend Acts, reaction
    • Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act
    • declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both
    • internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial
    • legislatures.

    • March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and
    • supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

    • Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of
    • the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the
    • colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction
    • was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing
    • British goods.
  14. 147. Boston Massacre, 1770
  15. The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the
    • worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March
    • 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at
    • some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets,
    • killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased
    • anti-British sentiment.
  16. 155. Lord North
    156. Tea Act, East India Company
    157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
    158. Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
    • Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the
    • Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's
    • repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally
    • considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the
    • Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis’ surrender in 1781.

    • The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea,
    • made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the
    • colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.

    • British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to
    • leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea
    • in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea
    • ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised
    • as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so
    • because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload
    • the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.

    • All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to
    • the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which
    • shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which
    • disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the
    • Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for
    • British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed
    • the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
  17. 65. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
  18. General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to
    • arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington,
    • where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The
    • colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes,
    • attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the
    • British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they
    • believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by
    • the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials
    • continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road.
    • This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
  19. 167. Second Continental Congress
    168. George Washington
    169. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
    170. Olive Branch Petition
    171. Thomas Paine: Common Sense
    • It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence,
    • which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies
    • should be independent of Britain.

    • He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian
    • War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed
    • commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more
    • successful in this second command.

    • At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based
    • in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester
    • Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill,
    • north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led
    • two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized
    • it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost
    • any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle
    • centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker
    • Hill.

    • On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain,
    • agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their
    • grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without
    • representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in
    • December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further
    • trade with the colonies.

    • A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1,
    • 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out
    • against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government
    • and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the
    • Revolution.
  20. 191. French Alliance of 1778, reasons for it
    192. Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
    193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
    • The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain.
    • France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to
    • lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the
    • colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.

    • In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada
    • along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe
    • in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was
    • defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the
    • Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North.
    • Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental
    • Army camped during the winter of 1777- ’78, after its defeats at the
    • Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered
    • further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington
    • chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental
    • Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania
    • after the British capture of Philadelphia.

    • Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the
    • nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and
    • undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This
    • strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to
    • their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia
    • to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in
    • Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and
    • waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked
    • their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the
    • Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in
    • the Revolutionary War.
  21. 194. League of Armed Neutrality
    195. Treaty of Paris, 1783
    • Catherine I of Russia declared that the Russian navy would defend
    • neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successful.

    • This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of
    • the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the
    • southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from
    • the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.