APUSH exam review

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APUSH exam review
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2010-05-05 19:28:59
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APUSH Exam Review
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Andrew Jackson, Early 1800s social movements, Supreme Court cases
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  1. 401. Election of 1824:
    402. "Corrupt Bargain"
    • popular vote, electoral vote, house vote:
    • Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
    • Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay -
    • 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99,
    • Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson -
    • 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in
    • the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of
    • Representatives, where Adams won.


    • The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John
    • Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of
    • Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes
    • for an office.
  2. 404. Tariff of Abominations
    405. Vice-President Calhoun
    406. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
    407. Age of the Common Man
    408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
    • 1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported
    • manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the
    • South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and
    • unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because
    • New England favored high tariffs.

    • : South Carolina Exposition and protest,
    • nullification
    • Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina
    • Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the
    • tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an
    • unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the
    • Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped
    • the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the
    • tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more
    • peaceful solution.


    • When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people
    • thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed
    • common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’
    • welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small
    • businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be
    • elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common
    • Man".


    • Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt
    • that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on
    • self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a
    • free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting
    • rights allowed Jackson to be elected.


    • The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public
    • schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories,
    • and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was
    • portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for
    • his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were
    • also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National
    • Nominating Conventions.
  3. 413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
    414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    Worchester v. Georgia: 1832
    415. Whigs: origins, policies
    • A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority,
    • had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota.
    • During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott
    • evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma
    • Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the
    • "Trail of Tears".

    • - The Supreme Court decided
    • Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused
    • to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee
    • Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that
    • Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which
    • could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871,
    • treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal
    • government.


    • Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation
    • owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was
    • once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British
    • political party that had opposed King George during the American
    • Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a
    • while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry,
    • protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally
    • upper class in origin.
  4. 417. Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
    418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
    • Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van
    • Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank,
    • which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran
    • against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was
    • the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won -
    • 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society
    • devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class
    • men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as
    • a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party
    • took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.

    • The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held
    • government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in
    • 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned).
    • Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and
    • favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the
    • bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified
    • that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small
    • banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over
    • whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
  5. 425. South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
    426. Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
    • The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the
    • agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured
    • goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed
    • protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by
    • asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by
    • individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.


    • When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a
    • theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal
    • tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that
    • they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention
    • in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and
    • passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the
    • state. This was protested by Jackson.
  6. 428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
    429. Force Bill
    • Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced
    • the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South
    • Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and
    • 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the
    • compromise.

    • 1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and
    • navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South
    • Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null
    • and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The
    • Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same
    • day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South
    • Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
  7. 432. Specie Circular
  8. 1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836,
    • was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money
    • without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular
    • required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It
    • stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down
    • sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
  9. 437. Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
    438. Rise of the Second Party System
    • William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin
    • Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0
    • votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being
    • reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with
    • the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as
    • living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which
    • wasn't entirely true.


    • Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated
    • all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all
    • government systems since the 1840's.
  10. 440. Tariff of 1842
    441. Transcendentalism
    442. Transcendentalists
    • A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the
    • general level of duties to about where they had been before the
    • Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its
    • cost.


    • A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's,
    • in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and
    • there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that
    • mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part
    • of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the
    • invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and
    • freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.


    • Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the
    • movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such
    • as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together
    • with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in
    • the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more
    • literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
  11. 465. Shakers
  12. A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann
    • Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers
    • through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
  13. 469. Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
  14. A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally
    • ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving
    • conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S.
    • and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume
    • responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the
    • Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
  15. 472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
  16. 1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the
    • first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is
    • inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal.
    • Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of
    • their members.
  17. 479. Irish, German immigration
  18. Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely
    • poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad
    • construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German
    • immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals.
    • Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor
    • force for the early industrial era.
  19. 492. Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
    493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
    494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
    495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
    496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
    497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia
    498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
    499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
    • 1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson’s refusal to deliver the
    • commissions to the judges appointed by Adams’ Midnight Appointments.
    • One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to
    • obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not
    • deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created
    • the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution,
    • and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the
    • Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall
    • presided.


    • 1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it
    • had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot
    • arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land
    • grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if
    • corruption was involved.

    • 1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the
    • decisions of state courts.


    • 1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be
    • contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It
    • freed corporations from the states which created them.

    • 1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a
    • government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.


    • 1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a
    • state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.


    • 1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority
    • over interstate commerce.


    • 1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation
    • against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said
    • Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes
    • but a responsibility for their welfare.


    • 1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities,
    • like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries.
    • President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.

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