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401. Election of 1824:
402. "Corrupt Bargain"
- popular vote, electoral vote, house vote:
- Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
- Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay -
- 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99,
- Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson -
- 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in
- the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of
- Representatives, where Adams won.
- The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John
- Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of
- Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes
- for an office.
404. Tariff of Abominations
405. Vice-President Calhoun
406. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
407. Age of the Common Man
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
- 1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported
- manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the
- South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and
- unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because
- New England favored high tariffs.
- : South Carolina Exposition and protest,
- Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina
- Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the
- tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an
- unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the
- Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped
- the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the
- tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more
- peaceful solution.
- When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people
- thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed
- common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’
- welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small
- businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be
- elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common
- Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt
- that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on
- self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a
- free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting
- rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
- The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public
- schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories,
- and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was
- portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for
- his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were
- also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National
- Nominating Conventions.
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832
415. Whigs: origins, policies
- A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority,
- had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota.
- During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott
- evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma
- Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the
- "Trail of Tears".
- - The Supreme Court decided
- Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused
- to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee
- Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that
- Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which
- could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871,
- treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal
- Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation
- owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was
- once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British
- political party that had opposed King George during the American
- Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a
- while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry,
- protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally
- upper class in origin.
417. Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
- Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van
- Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank,
- which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran
- against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was
- the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won -
- 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society
- devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class
- men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as
- a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party
- took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
- The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held
- government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in
- 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned).
- Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and
- favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the
- bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified
- that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small
- banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over
- whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
425. South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
426. Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
- The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the
- agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured
- goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed
- protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by
- asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by
- individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
- When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a
- theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal
- tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that
- they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention
- in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and
- passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the
- state. This was protested by Jackson.
428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
429. Force Bill
- Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced
- the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South
- Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and
- 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the
- 1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and
- navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South
- Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null
- and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The
- Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same
- day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South
- Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836,
- was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money
- without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular
- required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It
- stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down
- sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
437. Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
438. Rise of the Second Party System
- William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin
- Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0
- votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being
- reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with
- the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as
- living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which
- wasn't entirely true.
- Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated
- all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all
- government systems since the 1840's.
440. Tariff of 1842
- A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the
- general level of duties to about where they had been before the
- Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its
- A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's,
- in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and
- there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that
- mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part
- of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the
- invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and
- freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
- Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the
- movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such
- as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together
- with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in
- the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more
- literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann
- Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers
- through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
469. Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally
- ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving
- conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S.
- and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume
- responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the
- Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the
- first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is
- inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal.
- Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of
- their members.
479. Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely
- poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad
- construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German
- immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals.
- Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor
- force for the early industrial era.
492. Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia
498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
- 1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson’s refusal to deliver the
- commissions to the judges appointed by Adams’ Midnight Appointments.
- One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to
- obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not
- deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created
- the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution,
- and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the
- Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall
- 1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it
- had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot
- arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land
- grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if
- corruption was involved.
- 1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the
- decisions of state courts.
- 1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be
- contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It
- freed corporations from the states which created them.
- 1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a
- government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
- 1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a
- state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
- 1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority
- over interstate commerce.
- 1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation
- against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said
- Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes
- but a responsibility for their welfare.
- 1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities,
- like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries.
- President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.