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What does DRI's stand for?
Dietary Reference Intakes
What are the four RDA categories?
- Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
- Adequate Intake (AI)
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
- Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
What does Recommended Dietary Allowance serve as?
amount of intake to meet requirments for 97-98% of healthy individuals in an age group
What does adequate intake represent?
sets a dietary goal when new research suggests a health benefit but not enough information is available (adequate for everyone)
What is estimated average requirement measuring?
estimated intake to satisfy the needs of 50% of the poeple in an age group?
What does Tolerable Upper Intake Levels Represent?
Highest average daily intake that is not likely to adversely effect almost all people in the general population
What does Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) represent?
average dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance in health adult of a demographic
What does Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)?
guides the division of kcalories among carbohydrate, fat, and protein
What does the Glycemic Index measure?
The effect of carohydrates on blood sugar levels
What does PDCAAS stand for?
Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid
What does PDCAAS measure?
Ability to provide the essential amino acids required for tissue maintainence (Protein Quality: profile and digestibility)
What happens when you exceed the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)?
What are the two modes of fat deposition?
- Android (apple-shape)
- Gynoid (pear-shaped)
What is associated with Android fat deposits?
- -excess body fat in abdominal area
- -increased risk of hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes, coronary heart disease.
- -has hormonal influence
What is associated with Gynoid fat deposition?
- -excess fat in lower extremities
- -benign healthwise
- -does not effect hormones
- -difficult to lose
What are the four components used to evaluate body composition?
- 1. Lean body mass (LBM)
- 2. Body fat
- 3. Body water
- 4. Mineral mass
What is the DEXA body composition measuring method?
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
What is BMI?
Body Mass Index
What does the BMI measure?
Indirect measurment of body mass (weight to height)
What are the hormones that are secreted by Adipose (fat cells)?
- Leptin- Informs brain of fat stores level
- Adiponectin &resistin- insulin resistance
- Ghrelin-appetite-stimulating hormone
What is syndrom X?
- combination of insulin intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension
- -Brought on by obesity
What are the four main weight reduction methods?
- 1. Physical activity
- 2. Caloric restriction
- 3. Drugs
- 4. Surgery
What do chief cells drink/produce?
Pepsinogen & Pepsin
What do parietal cells produce?
HCL and intrinsic factor
When age increase vitamin B12 absorption decreases, what is responsible for this?
What is the main fuel for the brain?
What cells make insulin in the pancreas?
insulin or binsulin
What cells in the pancreas produces glucose when glucose is gone?
What organ as more functions than any other organ in the body?