Exam 4 ch25

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Exam 4 ch25
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2012-10-24 23:10:00
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  1. Where is BILE MADE? Where is it STORED? What is its PURPOSE?
    • made in the liver
    • stored in the gallnladder
    • for emulsifying fat
  2. What is a BOLUS?
    a ball of food covered in mucus
  3. What are the FUNCTIONS of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM?
    • Ingestion
    • Mechanical processing
    • Digestion
    • Secretion
    • Absorption
    • Excretion
    • Compaction/ Defecation
  4. What is INGESTION?
    • obtaining food
    • through mouth, lips, and teeth
    • voluntary
  5. What is MECHANICAL PROCESSING?
    • chewing
    • propulsion/ mixing
    • deglutition (swallowing)
    • peristalsis
  6. What is SALIVA made of?
    water , mucus, and starch digesting enzymes
  7. What is PERISTALSIS?
    rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle to move food (involuntary)
  8. What is PANCREATIC BICARBONATE for?
    base to neutralize chyme, so it doesn't eat through the intestines
  9. What is COMPACTION?
    removing water from chyme for solid defecation
  10. What is the PURPOSE of the ORAL CAVITY, TEETH, and TONGUE?
    • mechanical processing
    • moistening
    • mixing with salivary secretions
  11. What is the PURPOSE of the LIVER?
    • secretion of bile
    • storage of nutrients
  12. What is the PURPOSE of the GALLBLADDER?
    storage and concetration of bile
  13. What is the PURPOSE of the PANCREAS?
    • exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes
    • endocrine cells secrete hormones
  14. What is the PURPOSE of the LARGE INTESTINE?
    • dehydration
    • compaction of indegestible materials for elimination
  15. What is the PURPOSE of the SALIVARY GLANDS?
    secretion of lubricating fluid (with enzymes that break down carbohydrates)
  16. What is the PURPOSE of the PHARYNX?
    muscular propulsion of materials into esophagus
  17. What is the PURPOSE of the ESOPHAGUS?
    transport of materials to the stomach
  18. What is the PURPOSE of the STOMACH?
    chemical break down of materials through acid and enzymes

    mechanical processing through muscular contractions
  19. What is the PURPOSE of the SMALL INTESTINE?
    enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins, and ions
  20. What are the LAYERS of the DIGESTIVE TRACT?
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis Externa
    • Serosa
  21. DESCRIBE the MUCOSA layer?
    • epithelium lines the lumen of the digestive tract
    • stratified squamous
    • tight junctions
    • simple columnar
    • Lamina Propria
    • muscularis mucosa
  22. What is STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS?
    • voluntary skeletal muscle
    • protect v friction
  23. What is SIMPLE COLUMNAR?
    • rectangular single layer
    • absorption
    • secretes mucus
  24. What is the SUBMUCOSA LAYER?
    • LCT and DIFCT
    • elestic fibers (gut retains shape)
    • has blood and lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers
  25. Describe the MUSCULARIS EXTERNA layer?
    • involuntary
    • 2-3 smooth muscle layers for peristalsis and segmentation
    • controlled by ANS
  26. Describe the SEROSA layer.
    • visceral peritoneum (serous membrane)
    • EXCEPT in esophagus (which is covered by adventitia
  27. What are MESENTARIES?
    • double layer of serous membrane
    • arises from serosa
    • attaches digestive organs to parietal peritoneum and abdominal cavity
  28. FUNCTIONS of MESENTARIES?
    • suspend and stabilize digestive organs
    • store fat and insulate digestive organs (greater omentum)
    • provide access for blood and lymphatic vessels
    • provide nerves to digestive organs
  29. What is part of the ORAL CAVITY?
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
    • teeth
    • mastication (chewing)
  30. What are the FUNCTIONS of the ORAL CAVITY?
    • analyze material before swallowing
    • mechanical processing of food through actions of teeth, tongue, and palatal surfaces
    • lubrication
    • limited digestion of carbohydrates by a salivary enzyme
  31. What is the ESOPHAGUS? DESCRIPTION? FUNCTION?
    • muscular tube that transports food and liquid to the stomach
    • superior part is skeletal muscle
    • inferior part is smooth muscle
    • connects pharynx to stomach
    • with adventitia instead of serosa
  32. What are the FUNCTIONS of the STOMACH?
    • stores bulk amounts of ingested food
    • mechanically breaks down ingested food
    • chemically digests ingested food
  33. What are the REGIONS of the of the STOMACH?
    • cardia
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  34. What is the PRIMARY ROLE of the SMALL INTESTINE?
    digestion and absoption of food
  35. What are the 3 ANATOMICAL REGIONS of the SMALL INTESTINE?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  36. Describe the DUODENUM.
    • "the mixing bowl"
    • short
    • site of pancreatic juice secretion
    • and bile secretion
  37. Describe the JEJUNUM.
    • where bulk of digestion and absorption occurs
    • where less acidic chyme moves through
  38. Describe the ILEUM
    • materials flow through and into large intestine
    • biggest part
    • with Peyer's patches
  39. What are PEYER'S PATCHES?
    lymphoid nodules that help with immune system, are deep in mucosa
  40. How is the LARGE INTESTINE connected to the small intestine?
    by the ileo-cecal valve
  41. FUNCTIONS of the LARGE INTESTINE.
    • reabsorb water and compact feces
    • absorption of important minerals by bacteria
    • storage site for feces before defecation
  42. What are the 3 REGIONS of the LARGE INTESTINE?
    • cecum
    • colon
    • rectum
  43. Describe the CECUM.
    small, connects to ilium, has appendix
  44. Describe the COLON.
    biggest part, frames abdomen
  45. Describe the RECTUM.
    where poop is stored
  46. TAENIAE COLI ???
    • longitudinal muscle
    • long strings
  47. How are VILLI related to the LARGE INTESTINE?
    • they're not
    • large intestine is not for absorption so doesn't have villi

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