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Where is BILE MADE? Where is it STORED? What is its PURPOSE?
- made in the liver
- stored in the gallnladder
- for emulsifying fat
What is a BOLUS?
a ball of food covered in mucus
What are the FUNCTIONS of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM?
- Mechanical processing
- Compaction/ Defecation
What is INGESTION?
- obtaining food
- through mouth, lips, and teeth
What is MECHANICAL PROCESSING?
- propulsion/ mixing
- deglutition (swallowing)
What is SALIVA made of?
water , mucus, and starch digesting enzymes
What is PERISTALSIS?
rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle to move food (involuntary)
What is PANCREATIC BICARBONATE for?
base to neutralize chyme, so it doesn't eat through the intestines
What is COMPACTION?
removing water from chyme for solid defecation
What is the PURPOSE of the ORAL CAVITY, TEETH, and TONGUE?
- mechanical processing
- mixing with salivary secretions
What is the PURPOSE of the LIVER?
- secretion of bile
- storage of nutrients
What is the PURPOSE of the GALLBLADDER?
storage and concetration of bile
What is the PURPOSE of the PANCREAS?
- exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes
- endocrine cells secrete hormones
What is the PURPOSE of the LARGE INTESTINE?
- compaction of indegestible materials for elimination
What is the PURPOSE of the SALIVARY GLANDS?
secretion of lubricating fluid (with enzymes that break down carbohydrates)
What is the PURPOSE of the PHARYNX?
muscular propulsion of materials into esophagus
What is the PURPOSE of the ESOPHAGUS?
transport of materials to the stomach
What is the PURPOSE of the STOMACH?
chemical break down of materials through acid and enzymes
mechanical processing through muscular contractions
What is the PURPOSE of the SMALL INTESTINE?
enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins, and ions
What are the LAYERS of the DIGESTIVE TRACT?
- Muscularis Externa
DESCRIBE the MUCOSA layer?
- epithelium lines the lumen of the digestive tract
- stratified squamous
- tight junctions
- simple columnar
- Lamina Propria
- muscularis mucosa
What is STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS?
- voluntary skeletal muscle
- protect v friction
What is SIMPLE COLUMNAR?
- rectangular single layer
- secretes mucus
What is the SUBMUCOSA LAYER?
- LCT and DIFCT
- elestic fibers (gut retains shape)
- has blood and lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers
Describe the MUSCULARIS EXTERNA layer?
- 2-3 smooth muscle layers for peristalsis and segmentation
- controlled by ANS
Describe the SEROSA layer.
- visceral peritoneum (serous membrane)
- EXCEPT in esophagus (which is covered by adventitia
What are MESENTARIES?
- double layer of serous membrane
- arises from serosa
- attaches digestive organs to parietal peritoneum and abdominal cavity
FUNCTIONS of MESENTARIES?
- suspend and stabilize digestive organs
- store fat and insulate digestive organs (greater omentum)
- provide access for blood and lymphatic vessels
- provide nerves to digestive organs
What is part of the ORAL CAVITY?
- salivary glands
- mastication (chewing)
What are the FUNCTIONS of the ORAL CAVITY?
- analyze material before swallowing
- mechanical processing of food through actions of teeth, tongue, and palatal surfaces
- limited digestion of carbohydrates by a salivary enzyme
What is the ESOPHAGUS? DESCRIPTION? FUNCTION?
- muscular tube that transports food and liquid to the stomach
- superior part is skeletal muscle
- inferior part is smooth muscle
- connects pharynx to stomach
- with adventitia instead of serosa
What are the FUNCTIONS of the STOMACH?
- stores bulk amounts of ingested food
- mechanically breaks down ingested food
- chemically digests ingested food
What are the REGIONS of the of the STOMACH?
What is the PRIMARY ROLE of the SMALL INTESTINE?
digestion and absoption of food
What are the 3 ANATOMICAL REGIONS of the SMALL INTESTINE?
Describe the DUODENUM.
- "the mixing bowl"
- site of pancreatic juice secretion
- and bile secretion
Describe the JEJUNUM.
- where bulk of digestion and absorption occurs
- where less acidic chyme moves through
Describe the ILEUM
- materials flow through and into large intestine
- biggest part
- with Peyer's patches
What are PEYER'S PATCHES?
lymphoid nodules that help with immune system, are deep in mucosa
How is the LARGE INTESTINE connected to the small intestine?
by the ileo-cecal valve
FUNCTIONS of the LARGE INTESTINE.
- reabsorb water and compact feces
- absorption of important minerals by bacteria
- storage site for feces before defecation
What are the 3 REGIONS of the LARGE INTESTINE?
Describe the CECUM.
small, connects to ilium, has appendix
Describe the COLON.
biggest part, frames abdomen
Describe the RECTUM.
where poop is stored
TAENIAE COLI ???
- longitudinal muscle
- long strings
How are VILLI related to the LARGE INTESTINE?
- they're not
- large intestine is not for absorption so doesn't have villi