AP II final part 2

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crh0016
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17979
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AP II final part 2
Updated:
2010-05-05 18:53:25
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AP II
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test from hell part 2
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  1. Anatomy of the Respiratory System
    • a) Nose
    • b) Pahrnyx
    • c) Larynx

  2. Nose
    • External Nose
    • Nasal Cavity
  3. External Nose
    • a)mostly composed of cartilage plates
    • b) Bridge
    • -nasal bone
    • - extension of frontal and maxillary bones
  4. Nasal Cavity
    • 1) Nares- external openings
    • 2) Choanal- openings into Pharnyx
    • 3) Vestibule- anterior portion directly inside of nares
    • - has vibrissae- hairs which fill particles from inspired air
    • 4) Hard Palate- bony plate covered by mucous membrane; forms nasal cavity and roof of oral cavity
    • - posteriorly is the soft palate
    • 5) Conchae- superior, inferio and midlle projections fro mthe lateral walls of nasal cavity
    • -funtion to increase air turbulence allowing inhaled particles/ debris to be trapped by mucous
    • 6) Paranasal sinuses
    • - openings that warm and moisten air
  5. Pharynx
    • -air/food passage
    • A) 3 diff regions
    • 1) Nasopharnyx
    • a) uvula moves up to cover nasal cavity and Pharyngeal tonsil
    • 2) Oropharnyx
    • a)posteriot to oral cavity, common for food/air
    • b) palatine tonsil is below soft palate and lingual posterior to tongue
    • 3) Larnygopharnyx
    • a)posterir to epiglottis which closes the trachea so swallowed food does not go into lungs
    • b) passage of food and extension of esophagus posteriorly
  6. Larynx (voicebox)
    • -made of thyroid and circoid cartialge
    • A) outer casing of cartialge (all Hyaline cartilage except epiglottis)
    • 1) Unpair cartilage
    • - Thyroid( adam's apple, larger in males due to testosterone)
    • -Circoids( most inferior , makes base of of the larynx)
    • - Epiglottis ( elastic cartilage, all the way to the lungs)
    • 2)Paired Cartialge (makes up wall of larynx)
    • -Arytenoids- anchors vocal chords
    • - Cuneiforms
    • -Cornicular
  7. Conducting Zone of the Bronchi
    • a)Right and Left bronchi are made up at the division of the Trachea at T7
    • b)Primary branch into 2 secondary(lobar) at left lung and 3 secondary at right lung
    • c)Secondary ---- Tertiary(segmental)
    • d) bronchioles -----terminal bronchioles
  8. Mechanics of Breathing
    Inspiration

    Expiration
  9. Inspiration
    • a)period of time when air is flowing into lungs
    • b)contraction of the external intercostal causes the ribs to rise and move laterally
    • c) contraction of the diaphragm causes it to move inferiorly
    • d) pulmonary volume increases
  10. Expiration
    • a) passive process that depends on the natural elasticity of the lungs
    • b) inpsratory muscles relas causing the ribs to descend medially and diaphragm move superiorly
    • c)lungs recoil and pulmonary volume decreases
    • d) forced exhalation involves contraction of the abdominal mucles and the internal intercostals
  11. Gas Exchange
    • 1) Partial Pressure Gradient
    • a) gas exchange at pulmonary and systemic capillaries involves passive diffusion of O2 and CO2 down their PPG
    • b)partial pressure is define as individual pressre exerted indepentently by a particular gas w/ in a mixture
    • c) designate PO2 and PCO2
    • d) a gradient is established when partial pressure of gas diffuses across a membrane
    • e) gas will always diffuse from High to Low
  12. Gas Exchange PICTURE
  13. Gas Transport
    • 1) Impairments of O2 transprt
    • a) Anemic hypoxia- results from too few RBCs and RBCs not containing enough O2
    • b) Ischemic hypoxia- decreased delivery due to blood circulation to particular tissue being blocked(Sclerotic plaque)
    • c) Histoxic hypoxia- cells unable to use O2 delivered to them( cyanide poisoning)
  14. Chloride shift
    PIC
  15. Chemical control of Respiration
    • 2 Receptor Types:
    • Peripheral chemoreceptors

    Central Chemoreceptors
  16. Peripheral Chemoreceptors
    • a) located at the arch of arota and bifurcation of carotids
    • b) weakly stimualted by increase of CO2 in arterial blood volume
    • c) highly sensitive to H caused by CO2 will stimulated chemoreceptors
    • d) chemoreceptors send afferent signals to respiratory centers

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