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- compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars and
- composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
1 gram of carbohydrates yields how many calories?
We need a minimum of ______of carbohydrates daily to
provide adequate glucose for your brain
______are the preferred fuel for the brain and nervous system ?
Carbohydrates primary role is to provide the ____ with energy
(calories) mainly in the form of _____to your cells.
- – the building block of carbohydrates, a single sugar used in both plant
- and animal tissue as quick energy. A single sugar is known as a monosaccharide
Where do the carbohydrates we eat come from?
- Mostly plants
- from only animal derived food: milk and milk produces
Carbohydrates are divided into 2 categories:
Simple and complex
the single surgars (monsaccharides) and the pair of sugars (disaccharides) linked together
long chains of sugar (glucose) arranged as starch or fiber also called polysaccherides
In what foods do we get simple carbohydrates?
- found natrually in fruites, some vegetables, and milk and milk products (there are more nutrient dense foods and are healthier
- found as added sugars in sweets and processed food (added sugar)
- Sugars and other caloric sweetner that are added to foods during processing or preparation Adding sugar do not include naturally occurring sugar such
- as those found in milk and fruit.
Empty calorie foods
- a phrase used to indicate that food supplies calories but negligible
Complex carbohydrates two groups
Starch and fiber ( both found in plants)
A plant polysaccharide composed of hundred of glucose molecules, digestible by human being
Added sugars typically have more _____ and less _____ dense foods and are less healthy. considered to be empty calories food
- Grains that have been milled to remove the chaff, bran and germ from the grain - leaving only the endosperm - in order to yield a finer texture and improved shelf life.
- removes nutrients
- Enriched and Fortified
- Examples: White Bread, White Rice,
- Regular Pasta
refers to the process by which the B vitamins thamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and the mineral iron are added to refined grains and grain procducts at level specified by law
term for food to which nutrients have been added.
refers to a grain that is milled in its entirety (all but husk), not refined.
- Retains nutirents
- potential disease - fighting allies in your diet
- examples - whole wheat bread, brown rice.
the indigestible of food, composed mostly of polysaccharides. the best known of fiber are cellulose, hemicellulose, penctin, and gums.
Dietary Fibers found natually in?
added to foods for a beneficial effect
dietary fiber and funtional fibers we eat in our diet
Two types of Fiber
Soluble and insoluble
Includes the fiber type called cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Insoluble fibers do not disslove in water.
includes the fiber types called pectin, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloses, and algal substance ( for example carrageenan) soluble fibers either dissolve or swell when placed in warer
DRI recommended total fiber/day.
14 grams for every 1000 calories you eat
the effect of food on a person's blood glucose and insulin resonse; how fast how high the blood glucose rises and how quickly the body responds by bringing it back to normal
a ranking of foods based on their potenial to raise blood glucose level