DEOMITest4-1

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Deleon
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DEOMITest4-1
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2012-10-31 23:32:44
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DEOMI Test RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY ACCOMMODATION Extremism Sexism
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DEOMI Test 4.
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  1. A personal set or institutionalized system of attitudes, morals, ethical beliefs, and practices that are held with the strength of traditional religious values, characterized by ardor and faith, and generally evidenced through specific religious observances.
    DoDD 1350.2 functional definition of Religion

    Page 252
  2. What DoD instruction provides guidance on how the DoD addresses religious accommodation requests
    DoDI 1300.17

    Requests for accommodation of religious practices should be approved by commanders when accommodation will not have an adverse impact on military readiness, unit cohesion, standards, or discipline.

    Page 258
  3. Discounting, Religious jokes and slurs, Mandating, Stereotyping, Exclusion, Ignoring and Indifference, Harassment
    Forms of religious discrimination

    pg 263
  4. Research on various faith groups
    be conversant with religious issues
    be aware of and capable to advise about religious issues
    research unit religious demographics
    be aware of and familiar with other faith groups and traditions
    work with the unit chaplain are ways to do what?
    Be better capable of recognizing religious discrimination

    pg 265 - 266
  5. What can you do and what should be stressed to commanders to combat extremism
    Be involved to create greater unit cohesion and better morale


    Importance of religious faith, and the accommodation thereof

    Rights of those who do not profess a religious faith (atheists, agnostics,humanists)

    understand DoDI 1300.17 and regulations, policies, and directives as these apply to possible or actual religious discrimination

    pg 266
  6. Define key terms associated with extremism
    Ideology: Set or political beliefs

    Extremism: political ideology outside societal norms

    Extremist: person who advocates supremacist causes

    Supremacism: superiority based on characteristic

    Supremacist: believes a certain group is supreme

    pg 272
  7. A term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups who take a political idea to its limits, regardless of unfortunate repercussions, and show intolerance toward all views other than their own.
    Extremism

    pg 272
  8. Identify the seven stages of hate
    Stage 1: Grouping - Peer validation

    Stage 2: Defining - symbols, rituals, andmythologies

    Stage 3: Disparaging - verbally debasing object of hate

    Stage 4: Taunting - rhetoric to maintain agitation

    Stage 5: Attacking without weapons - becomes more aggressive, prowling for vulnerable targets

    Stage 6: Attacking with weapons - Personal contact empowers and fulfills a deep-seated need to have dominance

    Stage 7: Destroying - ultimate goal,  destroy object of hate.

    pg 274 - 275
  9. Stage of hate where haters entreat others to hate as they do. Peer validation bolsters a sense of self-worth and, at the same time, prevents introspection, which reveals personal insecurities.  Further, individuals who are otherwise ineffective become empowered when they join groups, which also provide anonymity and diminished accountability.
    Stage 1: Grouping

    pg 274
  10. Stage of hate where a skinhead group forms an identity through symbols, rituals and mythologies such as the swastika, the iron cross, the Confederate flag, clothing, hand signals, secret greetings, self-sacrifice or other group rituals which enhance the members’ status and, at the same time, degrades the object of their hate to identify their group.

    In what stage is giving one’s life to a cause as a soldier in a race war provides the ultimate sense of value and worth to life.
    Stage 2: Defining

    pg 274
  11. Stage of hate where verbally debasing the object of their hate through song lyrics and hate literature before progressing to the next, more openly hostile and bitter stage.
    Stage 3: Disparaging

    pg 274
  12. Stage of increasing degrees of rhetoric and violence such as a member shouting racial slurs from moving cars accompanied by Nazi salutes or racist graffiti on turf close to where they live.
    Stage 4: Taunting

    pg 274
  13. This stage differentiates vocally abusive haters from physically abusive ones. Hate groups become more aggressive, prowling their turf seeking vulnerable targets. Physical violence and thrill seeking causes an adrenaline surge which lasts for several minutes to several days.  Each successive anger provoking thought or action builds on residual adrenaline and triggers a more violent response than the one that originally initiated the sequence. Anger builds on anger and the slightest provocation triggers aggression.
    Stage 5: Attacking without weapons

    pg 274
  14. If attackers use firearms, broken bottles, baseball bats, blunt objects, screwdrivers, or belt buckles to commit hate crimes so that the attacker can be eye-to-eye with the victim and becoming bloodied during the assault, what stage of hate is the member in. Personal contact empowers and fulfills a deep-seated need to have dominance over others.
    Stage 6: Attacking with weapons

    pg 275
  15. Stage of hate where the ultimate goal of haters is to destroy the object of their hate.  Mastery over life and death imbues the hater with godlike power and omnipotence, which, in turn, facilitate further acts of violence. With this power comes a great sense of self-worth and value.  However, in reality, hate physically and psychologically destroys both the hater and the hated.
    Stage 7: Destroying

    pg 275
  16. As it relates to extremism what are the following:
    -Character assassination,
    -Name calling and labeling,
    -Irresponsive sweeping generalizations,
    -Inadequate proof behind assertions,
    -Tendency to view opponents and critics as essentially evil,
    -Dualism worldview,
    -Tendency to argue by intimidation,
    -Use of slogans, buzzwords, and thought-stopping clichés,
    -Assumption of moral superiority over others,
    -Doomsday thinking,
    -Belief that it’s okay to do bad things in the service of a “good” cause
    -Tendency to personalize hostility
    -Emphasis on emotional responses, less so on reasoning and logical analysis
    -Hypersensitivity and vigilance
    -Use of supernatural rationales for beliefs and actions
    -Advocacy of double standards
    Traits associated with extremism

    pg 277-279
  17. Describe extremist ideologies (Types of extremists)
    Nationalism: national culture/interests superior to any other

    Supremacy: race or ethnicity is superior/should dominate

    Separatism: Setting oneself or others apart

    Anarchism: Political, considers state unnecessary

    Religion: based on religious intolerance

    Eco-Warriors: Environmental activists

    pg 280
  18. Discipline.
    Knowledge of firearms and explosives.
    Tactical skills.
    Access to weapons and intelligence.
    Reasons why extremist organizations recruit DoD personnel.

    pg 282
  19. Why do extremist organizations’ recruit DoD personnel
    • Discipline.
    • Knowledge of firearms and explosives.
    • Tactical skills.
    • Access to weapons and intelligence.

    pg 282
  20. Describe strategies to combat extremism in the military
    • Examine personal viewpoints in light of military values and loyalty.
    • Reject affiliation with any extremist organizations.
    • Decline the distribution or circulation of extremist literature.
    • Encourage others to avoid extremist affiliations and views.
    • Report indicators of extremism to the appropriate command.

    pg 283
  21. What is the belief or attitude that one gender or sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other
    The foundation of sexism

    pg 290
  22. List some sexist behaviors (Allport's scale of acting out prejudice)
    1. Antilocution – name calling (e.g., babe, chick, the old lady, bitches, beefcake, stud-muffin).

    2. Avoidance – Joining all-male/female clubs, maintaining separate work areas, leaving the job, asking for a transfer.

    3. Discrimination – Unequal pay for equal work, establishing all-male/female clubs, giving awards or job assignments based on gender.

    4. Physical attacks – Rape, spouse abuse, sabotage of another‘s work, vandalizing property.

    5. Extermination – Killing your spouse.

    pg 291
  23. What are the influences that perpetuate sexism
    Historical: Religion, Great Man Theory, the Constitution

    Societal: behavior, ability, psychology/personality, ignoring, speaking for, clarifying, and interrupting; Pro-sexism

    Cultural: males/femals taught to exhibit certain behaviours, What we believe is what we look for, and what we believe is what we see; often see what they expect to see

    Institutional: Job role labels, unnecessary division, the media

    pg 291
  24. Historical events which contributed to sexism in the military
    Spanish-American War of 1898 - when the Army was unable to recruit enough men to provide medical treatment women were appointed as Army nurses under contract without military status

    Gulf War: ground combat remained closed, even though Army and Marine women did an outstanding

    Women‘s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948

    Feb 1988, the DoD adopted a Department-wide policy called the ―Risk Rule that set a single standard for evaluating positions and units from which the military Services could exclude women

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 repealed the prohibition on the assignment of women to combat aircraft

    Jan 1994, the Secretary of Defense, in response to advice from the ImplementationCommittee, rescinded the Risk Rule

    pg 293
  25. List stereotype factors that impact the full integration of women in the military
    Psychological – Don‘t have the killer mentality: can‘t handle stress, emotional, moodswings, too feminine (perceived as weak, not taken seriously, given office jobs) or toomasculine (labeled lesbians).

    Physical – The weaker sex, no endurance.

    Pregnancy issues – During contingencies, the ability to deploy pregnant women isrestricted by policy. Under some conditions, pregnant women can participate in fieldexercises, but they cannot deploy overseas or out to sea. In the Navy, women areremoved from the ship when they are 20 weeks into a pregnancy. The effect of this―unplanned loss‖ depends on how long it takes to get a replacement

    Leadership issues – ―No man would follow a woman into battle; she can‘t make logical decisions

    pg 297
  26. List familiarization factors that impact the full integration of women in the military
    Sexual harassment – As reported in the 2006 Gender Relations Survey of ActiveDuty Members, 34% of women and 6% of men indicated experiencing sexualharassment. For both women and men, the sexual harassment incident rate in 2006was lower than the 1995 rate (46% for women and 8% for men) but higher than the2002 rate (24% for women and 3% for men).

    First names – When ranks/ last names are used for members of the other sex, using first names implies superiority of one sex over another, establishes a powerrelationship, and shows disrespect toward or discounts members of one sex.

    A well-known feminist who frequently interacts with congressmen observed that one way men gain control over women is by calling them by their first name and putting a heavy, passive hand on their shoulder.

    Just as people feel free to touch, pat, and refer to children by their first name, theyfelt freer to use these friendly signs with women than with men.

    Also, the person who touches another first frequently ends up controlling therelationship. A gesture as seemingly innocent as a pat on the head or an armaround the shoulders determines who is in charge.

    pg 298
  27. What are strategies to prevent and/or eliminate sexism in the military
    1. Self-analysis/self-awareness.

    • 1. Ask:
    • a. ―How has sexism influenced/affected me?‖

    b. ―What behaviors do I display that may be interpreted as sexist?‖

    2. Model behavior

    a. Be a role model. Acknowledge and understand difference; don‘t group people andassume they all have the same characteristics. This will reduce your stereotyping.

    b. Challenge inappropriate behaviors.

    c. Advocate EO and fair treatment. Deal with standards, qualifications, and a person‘sability to meet them, rather than perceptions and beliefs about what is appropriate.

    4. Keep current on EO issues/information.

    5. Education and training (at all levels).

    pg 299
  28. Define the seven key elements of sexual harassment (SH)
    • Part 1 A form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances,requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
    • Part 2 Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term orcondition of a person’s job, pay, or career.
    • Part 3 Submission to or rejection of such conduct by a person is used as a basis forcareer or employment decisions affecting that person.
    • Part 4 Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with anindividual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensiveworking environment
    • Part 5 Such workplace conduct, to be actionable as a hostile work environmentharassment, need not result in concrete psychological harm to the victim, but ratherneed only be so severe or pervasive that a reasonable person would perceive, and thevictim does perceive, the work environment as hostile or offensive.
    • Part 6 Any person in a supervisory or command position who uses or condones anyform of sexual behavior to control, influence, or affect the career, pay, or job of amilitary member or civilian employee is engaging in sexual harassment.
    • Part 7 Similarly, any military member or civilian employee who makes deliberate orrepeated unwelcome verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexualnature in the workplace is also engaging in sexual harassment.

    pg 306-310
  29. What key element or form of sex discrimination involves unwelcome sexual advances,requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
    Part 1

    Making the Connection: the definition of sexual harassment according to the EEOCand DoDD 1350.2 is as follows:

    A form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

    Notice that sexual harassment is defined as a form of sex discrimination. This is because the foundation for this definition, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, lists sex as one of the protected bases.

    Furthermore, the EEOC has published policy guidance on current issues of sexual harassment, and in this policy guidance the commission acknowledges that although the definition addresses conduct of a sexual nature, it also addresses sex-based harassment. Sex-based harassment is atype of harassment that does not involve sexual activity or language.

    Instead, it tends to subject or force one gender to different treatment orconditions—just as in the case of harassment based on race, religion, or national origin. In other words, behavior that has no overtly sexual overtones but that, as Levy and Paludi state, “degrades or shows hostility or aversion toward a person because of their gender,” is characterized as sex-based discrimination.

    An example of sex-based harassment is found in McKinney v. Dole (1985), in which a court held that physical violence that is not sexualcould still be sex-based harassment if shown to be unequal treatment thatwould not have taken place if not for the victim’s sex/gender.

    Notice that essential elements of sexual harassment (unwelcome andsexual in nature) are present in the definition as well as some forms of sexual harassment (e.g., verbal and physical).

    pg 306-307
  30. Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of a person’s job, pay, or career is which key element of sexual harassment
    Part 2

    Making the Connection: the sexual harassment definition expands on the Quid Pro Quo type of sexual harassment.

    Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or conditionof a person's job, pay, or career.

    Notice that in both situations, the conditions or terms of employment arecontingent on the submission to or rejection of the sexual advance.

    In the context of this definition, explicit is a full precise expression in the form of verbal, nonverbal, or physical behavior(s). In other words, things being said or acted upon or demonstrated in a clear, overt, and open manner that are “clearly out of bounds.” Implicit means implied or inferred behaviors that are not clearly expressed, but are understood. These behaviors can also be verbal, nonverbal, or physical in nature. Implicit behaviors are closely associated with the subtleties of sexual harassment and often take the form of innuendoes. Examples include hints of something improper, indirect remarks, or gestures suggesting impropriety.

    Submission to or rejection of such conduct by a person is used as a basis for career oremployment decisions affecting that person.

    This part of the definition establishes that Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment also occurs when a supervisor or someone with authority to confer economic or tangible benefits takes or threatens to take away such benefits if the employee does not accept the “offer” or proceed with the pre-established “contract.” Quid Pro Quo also places a discriminatory condition on the subject because the terms of employment are being changed because of his or her gender.

    Quid Pro Quo may also have a harassing effect on third persons, as it can result in allegations of favoritism shown to another Service member or employee when a person feels unfairly deprived of recognition, advancement, or career opportunities.

    Third party sexual harassment means that the victim does not have to be only the person directly targeted for the harassment behavior, but could also be anyone affected by the offensive behavior in the “workplace”—as defined by DoDD 1350.2, “an expansive term for military members that includes conduct on/off duty, 24 hours a day.”

    pg 307-308
  31. Submission to or rejection of such conduct by a person is used as a basis forcareer or employment decisions affecting that person is which key element of sexual harassment
    Part 3

    Making the Connection: the sexual harassment definition expands on the Quid Pro Quo type of sexual harassment that is found under Part 2 and also pertains to Part 3.

    pg 308
  32. Conduct which has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment is which key element of sexual harassment.
    Part 4

    Making the Connection: The definition highlights what is defined as the second type of sexual harassment.

    A hostile environment occurs when Service members or civilians are subjected to offensive, unwanted, unsolicited comments and behaviors of a sexual nature. If the behavior in question has the intent (purpose) or effect (impact) of unreasonably interfering with their work performance, then the environment is classified as hostile.

    A hostile environment brings the topic of sex or gender differences into the workplace. It does not necessarily include the more blatant acts of Quid Pro Quo. Rather, it normally includes those actions in the “gray areas,” or the nonviolent behaviors which are gender based.

    In determining whether such behavior constitutes sexual harassment, the impact of the act upon the victim is critical. Service members must understand that what they may consider joking or horseplay must be evaluated based on its appropriateness or offensiveness as perceived by the subject or recipient. When attention of a sexual nature is not wanted, initiated, or solicited, it is considered unwelcome.

    Assessing whether the behavior is appropriate or offensive must be done from the perspective of the recipient, not the alleged harasser. The primary concern is the victim’s perspective, and not the intent of the alleged harasser. While the intent (purpose) of the alleged offender is given consideration, the effect (impact) of such behaviors on the subject or recipient may sometimes cause the intent to be irrelevant.
  33. Workplace conduct which, to be actionable as a hostile work environment harassment, need not result in concrete psychological harm to the victim, but rather need only be so severe or pervasive that a reasonable person would perceive, and the victim does perceive, the work environment as hostile or offensive.
    Part 5

    Making the Connection: To be actionable as a hostile work environment, conduct does not need to result in concrete psychological harm to the victim. Two terms need further clarification to understand this part of the definition: work environment and the reasonable person standard.

    Work environment is defined according to DoD Directive 1350.2 as the workplace or any other place that is work-connected, as well as the conditions or atmosphere under which people are required to work.

    The reasonable person standard test has two components: an objective portion and a subjective portion. Both are used to determine if behavior meets the legal definition of sexual harassment.  The objective test requires a hypothetical exposure of a reasonable person to the same set of facts and circumstances. How would a reasonable person under similar circumstances react or be affected by such behavior? If such a reasonable person perceives the harassing behaviors as creating an intimidating, hostile, or abusive work environment, then the objective test has been met. The subjective test requires that the victim or subject perceives the harassing behaviors as intimidating or hostile or as creating an abusive work environment.

    pg 309
  34. Key element of sexual harassment which states that any person in a supervisory or command position who uses or condones any form of sexual behavior to control, influence, or affect the career, pay, or job of a military member or civilian employee is engaging in sexual harassment.
    Part 6

    Making the Connection: The definition of sexual harassment emphasizes supervisory and command responsibilities. Some examples of supervisory and command responsibilities include:

    Examining his/her own behaviors.

    Providing an environment free of intimidation, hostility, and psychological stress.

    Controlling social interactions so that they do not interfere with productivity.

    Taking corrective action(s) whenever sexual behavior is displayed.

    Holding everyone responsible and accountable for their actions.

    Establishing and enforcing behavioral standards. 

    Taking disciplinary action as appropriate.

    Examining the totality of the circumstances (e.g., nature of advances and context of occurrence). This part of the definition reemphasizes the essential elements of sexualharassment—unwelcome and sexual in nature—as well as some forms of sexual harassment—verbal, gestures, physical—and is specifically directed at any military member or civilian employee. “Any person in a supervisory or command position who uses or condones any form of sexual behavior to control, influence, or affect the career, pay, or job of a military member or civilian employee is engaging in sexual harassment.” The message here is that sexual harassment prevention is everyone’s responsibility.

    pg 309 - 310
  35. Key element of sexual harassment which states that any military member or civilian employee who makes deliberate or repeated unwelcome verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature in the workplace is also engaging in sexual harassment.
    Part 7

    pg 310
  36. Describe types of sexual harassment
    As a general rule, there are two types of sexual harassment:

    a. Those acts that involve a consideration (Quid Pro Quo).

    b. Those acts that are classified as creating a hostile work environment.

    pg 310
  37. Recognize the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment
    • Sexual harassment can take three forms:
    • Verbal behavior refers to comments made to, about, and in the presence of a person. 
    •  
    • Nonverbal behavior. According to the definition of sexual harassment, any military member or civilian employee who makes deliberate or repeated unwelcome gestures of a sexual nature is engaging in sexual harassment.
    • Physical behavior. Differences in culture, personal space (proxemics), and enculturation may lead to this type of physical contact. The bottom line is that all individuals have the right to work in an environment free of sexual harassment. However, that right comes with a responsibility. If someone finds something offensive, he or she has the responsibility to say so. Everyone has individual feelings and interpretations of what is acceptable and what is unacceptable.

    pg 311-312
  38. Sexual harassment which refers to comments made to, about, and in the presence of a person.
    Verbal behavior

    Turning work discussions to sexual topics.

    Sexual connotations or innuendoes while referring to someone as honey, baby,hunk, stud, darling, etc.

    Telling lies or spreading rumors about a person’s personal sex life.

    Telling jokes or stories and making comments with sexual connotations.

    Making sexual comments about a person’s clothing, body, or sexual activities.

    Asking questions about a person’s sex life, fantasies, preferences, or history.

    Whistling or making catcalls at someone.

    a. Although behaviors are not blatant or overt in nature, if they convey overtones or undertones that are suggestive in nature, it might result in sexual harassment. Interms of Service policies and regulations, either suggesting or encouraging a subordinate to wear shorter or tighter clothing could also result in sexual harassment.

    b. It is difficult to determine the nature of the behavior that would constitute sexual harassment. Although a behavior may be very much unprofessional, if that behavior does not have a sexual connotation, it does not constitute sexual harassment

    pg 311-312
  39. According to the definition of sexual harassment, any military member or civilian employee who makes deliberate or repeated unwelcome gestures of a sexual nature is engaging in what sexual harassment behavior.
    Nonverbal behavior.

    Paying unwanted attention to someone by ogling or staring at his or her body.

    Displaying sexually suggestive visuals (e.g., centerfolds, calendars, cartoons).

    Items depicting sexual parts of the body (e.g., ashtrays, coffee cups, figurines).

    Sexually oriented entertainment in organizations, base facilities, or officiallysanctioned functions.

    Sexually suggestive gestures with hands or through body movement (e.g.,blowing kisses, licking lips, winking, grabbing crotch, lowering pants, raisingskirts, etc.).

    E-mails, text messages, or any type of electronic communication that is sexual innature.

    pg 312
  40. The type of sexual harassment behavior where differences in culture, personal space (proxemics), and enculturation may lead to physical contact.
    Physical behavior

    Hanging around, standing close to, or brushing against a person.

    Touching a person’s clothing, hair, or body.

    Hugging, kissing, patting, or stroking.

    Touching, pinching, bumping, or cornering.

    Blocking a passageway.

    The bottom line is that all individuals have the right to work in an environment free of sexual harassment. However, that right comes with a responsibility. If someone finds something offensive, he or she has the responsibility to say so. Everyone has individual feelings and interpretations of what is acceptable and what is unacceptable.

    pg 312
  41. Describe the effects of sexual harassment
    • Work Related Effects: hostile work environment
    • Individual Effects: decreased morale/motivation, interrupted careers, increased absenteeism, lowered productivity
    • Organizational Effects: work/job withdrawal, retirement
    • Economic Effects: litigation, lost duty time/productivity

    pg 313-314
  42. Coping Strategies
    detachment: discount or invalidate the victim’s claim, victim may minimize the situation by treating it like a job or deciding that theincident was really not important

    Denial: most common form of discounting, pretending the situation is not happening

    Relabeling: offering excuses for the harasser or interpreting the behavior as flattering

    avoidance: victim may ask to be transferred, use frequent leave, or go to sick call
  43. strategies to combat sexual harassment
    • Addressing/stopping sexist/ behaviors of sexual nature
    • organizational policy letters up-to-date
    • outlining procedures when sexual harassment occurs
    • Use bulletin boards to post information on sexual harassment prevention
    • prevention trainings, workshops, seminars, guest speakers, symposiums, informal and formal group discussions
    • unit climate assessments
    • “management by walking around"
    • Individual coaching
    • challenge sexist behaviors
    • on-the-spot corrections
    • Zero tolerate for sexually harassing behaviors, such as jokes, sneers, and physical or nonverbal gestures.

    Page 317
  44. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Addressing and stopping existing sexist or other behaviors of a sexual nature thatmay create an atmosphere conducive to sexual harassment. In most cases,employees will stop behaving in ways that offend others if they are informedabout their behavior in private and in a respectful, nonthreatening way.
    Proactive
  45. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Ensuring organizational policy letters are up-to-date and outlining procedures on what to do in the event that sexual harassment occurs. A written, posted policy statement regarding sexual harassment is a strong indicator of top management support.
    Proactive

    • A good policy should contain the following eight elements:
    • Purpose of the policy.
    • Definition of sexual harassment (DoD/EEOC).
    • Behavioral definition of sexual harassment.
    • Importance of the problem.
    • How military and civilian members should handle sexual harassment.
    • How the unit handles incidents or complaints. 
    • Disciplinary action.
    • Names and phone numbers of individuals to contact.

    pg 317
  46. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Using bulletin boards for passing on information concerning prevention of sexual harassment. Bulletin boards must be visible to all members of the public (e.g., organizations, Services agencies, and any other location that is visible to the public).
    Proactive.

    pg 317
  47. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Conducting unit climate assessments on a regular basis.
    Proactive

    Climate assessments are tools that assist commanders at all levels in determining their human relations climate. The program identifies those human relations factors, both positive and negative, that may affect mission readiness such as unit morale, equal opportunity and treatment, interpersonal relationships, and communications.

    pg 317
  48. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Conducting sexual harassment prevention trainings, such as workshops, seminars, guest speakers, symposiums, informal and formal group discussions, etc.
    Proactive

    During the training, have individuals role-play in situations, and discuss individuals’ differences in culture, personal space, socially accepted behaviors, and internalized values (enculturation).

    pg 317
  49. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?
  50. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Practice “management by walking around.” Maintaining a finger on the pulse of the organization’s interpersonal and equal opportunity climate is essential.
    Proactive

    pg 318
  51. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    re-engaging and re-emphasizing proactive strategies.
    Reactive

    pg 318
  52. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Conducting appropriate follow-up actions and checking for reprisal or retaliation.
    Reactive.

    pg 318
  53. Is the following unit level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Ensuring all actions/complaints are dealt with in a timely manner.
    Reactive

    pg 318
  54. Is the following individual level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Individual coaching.
    Proactive

    Do not assume that everyone understands what sexual harassment is. Teach, coach, counsel, and mentor as needed.

    pg 318
  55. Is the following individual level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    When identified, always challenge sexist behaviors that could lead to sexual harassment.
    Proactive

    pg 318
  56. Is the following individual level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Make on-the-spot corrections.
    Proactive

    pg 318
  57. Is the following individual level strategy for combating sexual harassment proactive or reactive?

    Not tolerating sexually harassing behaviors, such as jokes, sneers, and physical or nonverbal gestures.
    Proactive

    pg 318
  58. A form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
    Sexual harassment

    pg 306, 327
  59. Three approaches for combatting sexual harassment
    • Direct
    • Indirect
    • Third Party

    a. Direct Approach: Write down thoughts before approaching the individual involved. Confront the harasser and tell him or her exactly what behavior is offensive and unwanted and that it must stop. Avoid verbal attacks. Instead, use common courtesy, staying focused on the behavior being addressed and its impact. In most cases, the alleged harasser will stop behaving in ways that offend others if he or she is informed about offensive behavior in private and in a respectful, nonthreatening way.  Individuals should let the harasser know how they feel, and that their behavior will be reported to the chain of command if it continues. Keep in mind, however, that the direct approach may not be appropriate in certain circumstances. Because of this, commanders should not make direct confrontation a requirement.

    b. Indirect Approach: Send a letter to the harasser stating the facts (objective description of theincident), specific behaviors that are offensive and unwelcome, personal feelingsabout the inappropriate behavior, expected resolution, and that his or her behaviorwill be reported to the chain of command if it continues. Subjects of sexual harassment should keep a copy of the letter for record in theevent an informal/formal complaint is subsequently required.

    c. Third-Party Approach:  Request assistance from another person (intermediary). Ask someone else (acoworker, supervisor, or leader) to talk to the harasser on your behalf, or toaccompany you to resolve the conflict. A third party or intermediary does not speak for the subject. Instead, he or sherelates specifically what behavior the subject wants stopped, and makes clear that

    pg 318-319
  60. An approach to combatting sexual harassment where you confront the harasser and tell him or her exactly what behavior is offensive and unwanted and that it must stop.
    Direct Approach

    Write down thoughts before approaching the individual involved. Avoid verbal attacks. Instead, use common courtesy, staying focused on the behavior being addressed and its impact. In most cases, the alleged harasser will stop behaving in ways that offend others if he or she isinformed about offensive behavior in private and in a respectful, nonthreateningway.

    Individuals should let the harasser know how they feel, and that their behaviorwill be reported to the chain of command if it continues.

    Keep in mind, however, that the direct approach may not be appropriate in certaincircumstances. Because of this, commanders should not make direct confrontation a requirement.

    pg 318
  61. An approach to combatting sexual harassment where you send a letter to the harasser stating the facts (objective description of the incident), specific behaviors that are offensive and unwelcome, personal feelings about the inappropriate behavior, expected resolution, and that his or her behavior will be reported to the chain of command if it continues.
    Indirect Approach

    Subjects of sexual harassment should keep a copy of the letter for record in the event an informal/formal complaint is subsequently required.

    pg 319
  62. An approach to combatting sexual harassment where you request assistance from another person (intermediary), ask someone else (a coworker, supervisor, or leader) to talk to the harasser on your behalf, or to accompany you to resolve the conflict.
    Third-Party Approach

    A third party or intermediary does not speak for the subject. Instead, he or she relates specifically what behavior the subject wants stopped, and makes clear that continued behavior will result in reporting the incident to the chain of command.

    pg 319
  63. sexual harassment that refers to conditions placed on a person's career or terms of employment in return for sexual favors. It involves threats of adverse actionsif the victim does not submit or promises of favorable actions if the person does submit.  "This for that"
    Quid Pro Quo

    pg 308, 327
  64. sexual harassment occurs when a person is subjected to offensive, unwanted, and unsolicited comments and behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with that person's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment.
    Hostile Environment

    pg 308, 327
  65. Two types of sexual harassment
    Quid Pro Quo:  sexual harassment refers to conditions placed on a person's career orterms of employment in return for sexual favors. It involves threats of adverse actionsif the victim does not submit or promises of favorable actions if the person does submit.

    Hostile Environment: sexual harassment occurs when a person is subjected to offensive,unwanted, and unsolicited comments and behavior of a sexual nature that interfereswith that person's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensiveworking environment.
  66. Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent. It can occur without regard to gender or spousal relationship or age of victim.
    Sexual Assault
  67. In looking at the definition for sexual assault how does it differ from sexual harassment?
    use of force

    Sexual Assault: Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent. It can occur without regard to gender or spousal relationship or age of victim.

    Sexual Harassment: A form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

    pg 327
  68. What is the DoD prevention strategy
    The DoD Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office (SAPRO) play a key role indeveloping DoD’s sexual assault prevention strategy. Sexual assault prevention is more than risk management, but commanders and senior enlisted leaders understand they are responsible for mitigating sexual assault risk.


    DoD’s sexual assault prevention strategy goes beyond risk management; it takes a broadcommunity approach that emphasizes all personnel, at all levels, are responsible forending sexual assault throughout the DoD.

    pg 331
  69. Challenging myths about male sexual assault victims
    men do not get raped

    males raped by another man must be homosexual (victim-blaming)

    pg 332
  70. What is the Department of Defense’s single point of authority, accountability, and oversight for all sexual assault policy matters and reports to the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness.
    Sexual Assault Prevention and Response program (SAPRO)
  71. SAPRO develops policy and programs to improve prevention efforts through training and education programs, enhance treatment and response to victims, and ensure system accountability.

    a. True
    b. False
    True

    pg 333
  72. The EOA is part of the Case Management Team.

    a. True
    b. False
    False

    It is important to reiterate that as an EOA, you are not part of the Case Management Team.

    pg 333
  73. What is your only responsibility or course of action when you are made aware of a sexual assault.
    You must involve the Sexual Assault Response Coordinator (SARC ).

    pg 333
  74. As an EOA you can take a Restricted Report

    a. True
    b. False
    False

    EOAs are not part of the Case Management Team and cannot take a Restricted Report

    pg 336
  75. Which of the following is true regarding the definition of religion.

    A.  It is a substantive definition
    B. It involves practices that are characterized by faith
    C. It tells us what religion is, rather than what it does
    D. It mentions deities worshipped by the majority of the population
    B. It involves practices that are characterized by faith.

    pg 252

    2. DoD Directive 1350.2 defines religion as ―A personal set or institutionalized system of attitudes, morals, ethical beliefs, and practices that are held with the strength of traditional religious values, characterized by ardor and faith, and generally evidenced through specific religious observances.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Prominent groups, such as Buddhists, agree that the term "religion" is compatible with their faiths:

    a. True
    b. False
    b. False

    pg 254

    Increasingly, DoD uses the term faith groups rather than religion, because some prominent groups (e.g., Buddhists) do not claim or find the term religion compatible to their beliefs.
  77. In which stage of hate do haters vocalize their beliefs?

    A) disparaging
    B) attacking without a weapon
    C) attacking with weapons
    D) destroying
    A) disparaging

    pg 274

    5. Stage 3: Disparaging – Hate is the glue that binds haters to one another and to a common cause. By verbally debasing the object of their hate, haters enhance their self image, as well as their group status. In skinhead groups, racist song lyrics and hate literature provide an environment where hate flourishes. In fact, researchers have found that the life span of aggressive impulses increases with ideation. In other words, the more often a person thinks about aggression, the greater the chance for aggressive behavior to occur. Thus, after constant verbal denigration, haters progress to the next, more openly hostile and bitter, stage.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. According the DoD surveys, victims are almost always sexually harassed before being sexually assaulted.

    a) True
    b) False
    b) False

    pg 327

    1. Sexual assault and sexual harassment are not the same, although they are related to each other. In DoD surveys, for example, sexual harassment is involved (before and after) in about 30% of the sexual assaults.
  79. Which of the following is true about accommodation requests?

    a. Requests for religious accommodation are guaranteed

    b. Commanders should first think "no" in response to accommodation requests

    c. Requests for accommodation of religious practices should be approved by commanders

    d. If the accommodation was approved at a previous command, the current commander must also approve the request
    c. Requests for accommodation of religious practices should be approved by commanders

    pg 260

    At the same time,they must remember that DoDI 1300.17 urges commanders to think yes first, rather than no.
  80. Which alternative would be considered unlawful religious discrimination?

    a. A commander requires all members to work 7 days a week in a forward operating area, without time for religious observances

    b. An Air Force E-5 jet engine mechanic is prohibited from wearing his Yarmulke while performing his official duties on the flight line

    c. A supervisor refuses to allow any of her people special time off for religious practices because she believes it to be a waste of time

    d. A supervisor allows Christian members time off on Sunday to practice their faith, but denies time to Muslim members on Friday because of a scheduled inspection
    c. A supervisor refuses to allow any of her people special time off for religious practices because she believes it to be a waste of time

    pg 263

    • 2. Discrimination
    • a. Discounting
    • This occurs when another person's religious practice or values—dissimilar to one's own—are dismissed, or discounted, or treated as less important. This can translate into denial of that person's opportunity to practice his/her own beliefs, or a tendency to think a person is trying to gain special privileges. Examples:

    So what if it's Ramadan shipmate! Be here at 0900, we have things to do!

    We don't have to give them time off to worship on Saturday, they are supposed to pray on Sunday anyway.

    Eye-rolling (oh, not another one!), making a face (you believe WHAT?), etc.
  81. What are the last three stages of the seven-stage hate model?

    a. Gathering, defining, and destroying

    b. Disparaging, attacking, and destroying

    c. Taunting, attacking with weapons, and destroying

    d. Attacking without weapons, attacking with weapons, and destroying
    d. Attacking without weapons, attacking with weapons, and destroying

    pg 274 - 275

    • Stage 1: Grouping
    • Stage 2: Defining
    • Stage 3: Disparaging
    • Stage 4: Taunting
    • Stage 5: Attacking without weapons
    • Stage 6: Attacking with weapons
    • Stage 7: Destroying
  82. 2. Which extremist trait is described as the tendency to predict catastrophic consequences from a situation or from a failure to follow a specific course of action?

    a. Dualism world view

    b. Doomsday thinking

    c. Hypersensitivity and resilience

    d. Advocacy of double standards
    b. Doomsday thinking

    pg 278

    Doomsday thinking: Extremists often predict dire or catastrophic consequences from a situation or from afailure to follow a specific course, and they tend to exhibit a kind of crisis mindedness.  It can be a Communist takeover, a Nazi revival, nuclear war, earthquakes, floods, or the wrath of God. Whatever it is, it is just around the corner unless we follow their program and listen to their special insight and wisdom, to which only the truly enlightened have access. For extremists, any setback or defeat is the beginning of the end.
  83. Select the level(s) of intensity in Allport's model described below. 

    Joe will drive across town to the all-male fitness center rather than go to the co-ed facility on his street.  He says, "Chicks don't go to work out, they just go to look cute."

    a. Antilocution only

    b. Avoidance and antilocution

    c. Avoidance and discrimination

    d. Antilocution and discrimination
    b. Avoidance and antilocution

    pg 291

    B. Sexist Behavior

    1. Antilocution – Catcalls, bad mouthing, name calling (e.g., babe, chick, the old lady,bitches, beefcake, stud-muffin).

    2. Avoidance – Joining all-male/female clubs, maintaining separate work areas, leaving thejob, asking for a transfer.

    3. Discrimination – Unequal pay for equal work, establishing all-male/female clubs, givingawards or job assignments based on gender.

    4. Physical attacks – Rape, spouse abuse, sabotage of another‘s work, vandalizing property.5. Extermination – Killing your spouse.
  84. 2. Which term is characterized by accommodating sexist behavior by reinforcing it rather than questioning it?

    a. Sexism

    b. Pro-sexism

    c. Stereotyping

    d. Gender typing
    b. Pro-sexism

    pg 292-293

    • e. Pro-sexism
    • Accommodating sexist behavior by reinforcing or encouraging it, rather than questioning, checking, or opposing it.  People are pro-sexist for a number of reasons. Some people are socialized to accept it; some go along to be more acceptable sometimes because it will help them gain power and make more effective changes. Whatever the reason, it is often not an easy choice. Regardless of the intention, a person who is pro-sexist must understand that the message will be that sexist behavior is okay.
  85. Which alternative describes work related effects of sexual harassment?

    a. Often leads to suicidal tendencies

    b. Creates impaired relationships between co-workers

    c. Can lead to chronic body aches and sleep disturbances

    d. Related stress and depression leads to spouse and child abuse
    b. Creates impaired relationships between co-workers

    pg 313

    • Work Related Effects
    • a. The Supreme Court has recognized that harassment in the workplace is a violation ofthe Civil Rights Act, and although past cases have clarified employer responsibilities for preventing and correcting harassment, many other issues are uncertain.

    b. Determining when social interaction becomes unwelcome sexual harassment, and just how severe or widespread offensive
  86. 2. Blocking a passage way or violating an individual's personal space in a sexual nature isan example of which type of harassing behavior?

    a. Non-verbal

    b. Emotional

    c. Physical

    d. Verbal
    c. Physical

    pg 311 - 312

    • Physical behavior. Differences in culture, personal space (proxemics), and enculturation may lead to this type of physical contact. The bottom line is that all individuals have the right to work in an environment free of sexual harassment. However, that right comes with a responsibility. If someone finds something offensive, he or she has the responsibility to say so. Everyone has individual feelings and interpretations of what is acceptable and what is unacceptable.
    •  Hanging around, standing close to, or brushing against a person.
    •  Touching a person’s clothing, hair, or body.
    •  Hugging, kissing, patting, or stroking.
    •  Touching, pinching, bumping, or cornering.
    •  Blocking a passageway.

    Verbal behavior refers to comments made to, about, and in the presence of a person.

    Nonverbal behavior. According to the definition of sexual harassment, any military member or civilian employee who makes deliberate or repeated unwelcome gestures of a sexual nature is engaging in sexual harassment.
  87. DoD Directive 1350.2 defines religion as ―A personal set or institutionalized system of attitudes, morals, ethical beliefs, and practices that are held with the strength oftraditional religious values, characterized by ardor and faith, and generally evidenced through specific religious observances.  What kind of definition is this?

    a. Functional

    b. Substantive

    c. The kind that tells us what religion is

    d. The kind that tells us what a belief is
    Functional

    pg 252
  88.  Common religious accommodation requests
    Time off for religious observances, rituals, holidays

    Religious apparel

    Dietary requirements

    Medical requirements

    pg 258 - 259
  89. Five factors that commanders and EOAs should consider when trying to determine whether to grant a request for accommodation.
    Importance of Military Requirement: Ops Tempo, Deployed, threat of disease, disciplinary issues, unit cohesion, standards, readiness, DoDI 1300.17 urges commanders to think yes first, rather than no.

    Importance to Requester: paramount/pressing issue, is time a factor, can request be accommodated at a different time or by a different means, requested before

    Cumulative Impact: domino effect within unit (guard against this sort ofunhelpful speculation, consider each request individually)

    Alternatives: be creative, ask requester. eg., can Roman Catholic chaplain or lay leader come to unit

    Previous Treatment of Similar Requests: talk to other EOAs or chaplains for previous handling

    pg 260 - 261
  90.  7 types of religious discrimination
    • Discounting
    • Religious jokes and slurs
    • Mandating
    • Stereotyping
    • Exclusion
    • Ignoring and indifference
    • Harassment

    pg 263 - 264
  91. What kind of religious discrimination is when another person's religious practice or values-dissimilar to one's own are treated as less important. This can translate into denial of that person's opportunity to practice his/her own beliefs, or a tendency to think a person is trying to gain special privileges.
    Discounting
  92. What type of religious discrimination may start off with ―A rabbi, a priest, and a Buddhist monk walk into a bar
    Religious jokes and slurs

    pg 263
  93. Overtly or covertly requiring a person to participate in a religious service or public prayer, such as when commanders open their staff meetings with prayer is what kind of religious discrimination.
    Mandating

    pg 263
  94. The belief that Jews are argumentative is an example what kind of religious discrimination
    Stereotyping

    pg 264
  95. Refusing to associate with people because of their religious beliefs is what kind of religious discrimination
    Exclusion

    pg 264
  96. Failing to recognize and address legitimate religious needs, such as providing alternative services or considering the religious or worship needs of individuals of faith, or the needs of those with no faith, or lack of concern for those with religiously-focused concerns, to include those who wish to be free from religion is what type of religious discrimination.
    Ignoring Indifference

    pg 264
  97. Strategies that you can employ to ensure you can discuss religious accommodation and/or discrimination issues with your commander and other leaders with informed insight.
    • Involvement
    • research
    • get together with a unit member whose faith is new to you, and learn what that person believes and practices.
    • Be aware of and capable to advise about religious issues
    • Research unit religious demographics, and keep commanders aware of issues that pertain to the religious groups within your unit.
    • Be aware of and familiar with other faith groups and traditions-as well as concerns of nonreligious conflicts, big and small
    • Work with the unit chaplain
    • Ensure all unit members understand the overarching importance of the military mission.
    • Stress to commanders, other unit leaders, and members the importance of Compromise or Alternatives

    pg 265
  98. Legislative Acts
    Army Reorganization Act: In 1920, granted military nurses the status of officers with relative rank, not given the rights and privileges generally accorded those ranks.

    Naval Reserve Act: In 1925, the 1916 Naval Reserve Act was changed to read male citizens instead of citizens as an enlistment qualification.

    In 1942, Congress passed legislation to form the Women‘s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC).

    Women‘s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948, granting women permanent military status, thus opening the door for women to serve in peacetime and providing a means for mobilizing women in the event of war, but limited to 2% of the force

    Selective Service Act of 1948, authorizing a peacetime draft of men (not women)

    Public Law 90-130 (1967), removed restrictions on the careers of female officers, eliminated 2% cap.

    1978, WACs dissolved, women part of regular Army

    Risk Rule (Feb 1988), excluded women from noncombat units or missions if the risks of exposure to direct combat, hostile fire, or capture were equal to or greater than the risk in the combat units they supported.

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, repealed prohibition on assignment of women to combat aircraft, Nov 1992 report recommended retaining the direct ground combat exclusion for women

    Jan 1994, Secretary of Defense rescinded the Risk Rule

    pg 294 - 296

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