Morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl
- Classification: Therapeutic: opiod analgesic, Pharmacologic: opioid agonists
- Indications: Severe pain, pulmonary edema, pain associated with MI
- Action: Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS. Alters the perception of an response to painful stimuli while producing generalized CNS depression.
- Contraindications/Precautions: hypersensitivity; some products contain tartazine, bisulfites, or alcohol and should be avoided in patients with hypersensitivity
- Adverse Reactions/Side Effects: CNS: confusion, sedation, dizziness, dysphoria, euphoria, floating feeling, hallucinations, headache, unusual dreams ENT: blurred vision, diplopia, miosis, CV: hypotension bradycardia GI: constipation, nausea vomiting, GU: urinary retention, flushing, itching, sweating.
- Routes: PO, IM, subcut, rect, IV, epidural
- Nursing Implications/Priorities: assess type, location and intesity of pain prior to and 1 hr following PO, subcut, IM pt. should have bolus dose, long term use may lead to dependence.
- Desired Outcomes: Decrease in severity of pain w/o a significant alteration in level of consciousness or respiratory status, decrease in symptoms of pulmonary edema