bacterial genetics

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Author:
lngray82
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179809
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bacterial genetics
Updated:
2012-10-25 02:01:15
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micro
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exam 2
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  1. The study of what genes are, how they cary information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated
    Genetics
  2. A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
    Gene
  3. Structure containing DNA that physically carries hereitary information: the _________ contain the gene
    Chromosome
  4. All the genetic information in a cell
    Genome
  5. The molecular study of genomes
    Genomics
  6. The genes of an organism
    Genotype
  7. Expression of the genes
    Phenotype
  8. This conrains nucleotides
    Nucleic acid
  9. This is made up of pentose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen-containing base
    nucleotides
  10. What kind of pentose sugar does DNA have?
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  11. What forms the backbone of DNA
    a phosphate and sugar
  12. What kind of sugar does RNA have?
    Ribose
  13. During replication when is the only time replication occurs?
    When you would be dividing the cell
  14. Copy messages on DNA to a mRNA is called?
    transcription
  15. After reading the message on mRNA this process makes a protein or enzyme on a ribosome is called?
    translation
  16. Bacteria can do something unique with other cells, what is it?
    recombination, passing genetic information from one cell to the next
  17. Strands of DNA are held together by what kind of bonds?
    Hydrogen
  18. What does antiparallel mean in DNA
    two strands are running in opposite directions
  19. At what end can a DNA strand add a nucleotide to only?
    3` end
  20. DNA is copied by?
    DNA polymerase
  21. Who initiates DNA replication?
    RNA primer
  22. Leading strand is synthesized?
    continuously
  23. LAgging strand is synthesized?
    discontinuously, (okazaki fragments)
  24. WHat is Helicase?
    unzips the double helix when replication happens. its the first step
  25. What is primase?
  26. What is DNA polymerase?
    Adds the correct nucleotides to DNA during DNA replication
  27. What is RNAse?
  28. What is Ligase?
  29. Semi conservative replication is?
    One strand is a brand new strand and one is a old strand paired up.
  30. Can bacteria unzip its DNA both ways simutaniously?
    yes, its faster and a unique compared to ours
  31. mRNA transfers information to what?
    the ribosome
  32.  transports the little acids into the RNA is called
    tRNA
  33. This begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence
    Transcription
  34. When does transcription stop, when it reaches what?
    The terminator sequence
  35. Can RNA polymerase unzip the strands also?
    yes
  36. The sense strand holds the?
    Real hard copy of DNA
  37. What do the SnRNPs in the nucleus do?Just in eukaryotic cells)
    they remove the introns so the exons can come together in the mRNA
  38. What happens to the introns once cut out?
    They get recycled and stay in the nucleus.
  39. simultaneously transcription and translation happen where?
    in prokarote cells
  40. nonsense codons are also known as?
    stop codons, happens in translation
  41. AUG is what kind of condon on mRNA?
    start codon happens in translation
  42. This may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful to DNA?
    mutations
  43. Agent that causes mutations
    mutagen
  44. occur in the absense of a mutagen
    spontaneous mutations
  45. When one base gets changed during a mutation it is called?
    base substitution
  46. When a mutatation causes an amino acid to change it is called?
    Missense mutation
  47. Putting a stop codon in the middle of a DNA strand is what kind of mutation?
    Nonsense mutation
  48. Insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides pairs is what kind of mutation?
    frameshift mutation (very serious)
  49. this happens at a rate of of 1 in 10 x 9th replicated base pairs or in 1 in 10 x 6th replicated genes
    spontaneous mutations
  50. what increases to 10 x -5 or 10 x -3 per replicated gene?
    mutagens
  51. Can radiation such as ionizing radiation, or uv radiation cause mutations?
    yes, it causes the formation of ions that can react/break with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone
  52. during repair of DNA this is what seperates thymine dimers?
    Photolyases

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