Card Set Information
The study of what genes are, how they cary information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated
A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein
Structure containing DNA that physically carries hereitary information: the _________ contain the gene
All the genetic information in a cell
The molecular study of genomes
The genes of an organism
Expression of the genes
This conrains nucleotides
This is made up of pentose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen-containing base
What kind of pentose sugar does DNA have?
What forms the backbone of DNA
a phosphate and sugar
What kind of sugar does RNA have?
During replication when is the only time replication occurs?
When you would be dividing the cell
Copy messages on DNA to a mRNA is called?
After reading the message on mRNA this process makes a protein or enzyme on a ribosome is called?
Bacteria can do something unique with other cells, what is it?
recombination, passing genetic information from one cell to the next
Strands of DNA are held together by what kind of bonds?
What does antiparallel mean in DNA
two strands are running in opposite directions
At what end can a DNA strand add a nucleotide to only?
DNA is copied by?
Who initiates DNA replication?
Leading strand is synthesized?
LAgging strand is synthesized?
discontinuously, (okazaki fragments)
WHat is Helicase?
unzips the double helix when replication happens. its the first step
What is primase?
What is DNA polymerase?
Adds the correct nucleotides to DNA during DNA replication
What is RNAse?
What is Ligase?
Semi conservative replication is?
One strand is a brand new strand and one is a old strand paired up.
Can bacteria unzip its DNA both ways simutaniously?
yes, its faster and a unique compared to ours
mRNA transfers information to what?
transports the little acids into the RNA is called
This begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter sequence
When does transcription stop, when it reaches what?
The terminator sequence
Can RNA polymerase unzip the strands also?
The sense strand holds the?
Real hard copy of DNA
What do the SnRNPs in the nucleus do?Just in eukaryotic cells)
they remove the introns so the exons can come together in the mRNA
What happens to the introns once cut out?
They get recycled and stay in the nucleus.
simultaneously transcription and translation happen where?
in prokarote cells
nonsense codons are also known as?
stop codons, happens in translation
AUG is what kind of condon on mRNA?
start codon happens in translation
This may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful to DNA?
Agent that causes mutations
occur in the absense of a mutagen
When one base gets changed during a mutation it is called?
When a mutatation causes an amino acid to change it is called?
Putting a stop codon in the middle of a DNA strand is what kind of mutation?
Insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides pairs is what kind of mutation?
frameshift mutation (very serious)
this happens at a rate of of 1 in 10 x 9th replicated base pairs or in 1 in 10 x 6th replicated genes
what increases to 10 x -5 or 10 x -3 per replicated gene?
Can radiation such as ionizing radiation, or uv radiation cause mutations?
yes, it causes the formation of ions that can react/break with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone
during repair of DNA this is what seperates thymine dimers?