APUSH Exam

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danibaby72
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17982
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APUSH Exam
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2010-05-05 19:05:51
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APUSH exam review
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Technological advancements, abolitionism, North / South conficts and North / South conflicts, Abraham Lincoln, Civil War and Reconstruction, Supreme Court cases
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  1. 551. Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
    552. Elias Howe (1819-1869)
    553. Ten-Hour Movement
    554. Clipper ships
    555. Cyrus Field (1819-1892)
    556. Robert Fulton, steamships
    557. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
    • McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more
    • efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to
    • substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single
    • family, and also made corporate farming possible.

    • Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more
    • efficient.


    • Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked
    • from sun up to sundown.


    • Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They
    • were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were
    • unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting
    • perishable products from distant countries like China and between the
    • eastern and western U.S.


    • An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the
    • Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a
    • submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland
    • in July, 1866.

    • A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first
    • steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first
    • practical submarine.


    Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
  2. 579. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
    588. Ablemann v. Booth
    1859 - Sherman Booth
    • 1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a
    • federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania
    • indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The
    • Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone
    • but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus
    • weakening the fugitive slave laws.

    • was sentenced to prison in a federal court for
    • assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by
    • the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act
    • was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It
    • upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the
    • supremacy of federal government over state government.
  3. 599. Kansas - Nebraska Act
    600. Birth of the Republican Party
    • 1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a
    • doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular
    • sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and
    • Nebraska would be slave or free states.


    • A coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade
    • Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal,
    • anti-slavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C.
    • Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
  4. 602. Popular Sovereignty
    603. Thirty-six, thirty line
    604. Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
    • The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to
    • decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular
    • sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.


    • According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in
    • the Louisiana territory north of the 36º30' N latitude. This was
    • nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.


    • Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John
    • Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First
    • election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration
    • and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about
    • the party by saying "I know nothing".
  5. 05. "Bleeding Kansas"
    • Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the
    • Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and
    • murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas
    • carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John
    • Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war
    • continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The
    • violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.
  6. 30. South's advantages in the Civil War
    631. North's advantages in the Civil War
    • Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and
    • could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and
    • only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the
    • nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military
    • equipment and supplies.


    • Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation,
    • overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and
    • supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material
    • advantage.
  7. 632. Fort Sumter
    633. Bull Run
    • Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860,
    • South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all
    • federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities.
    • Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when
    • Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts
    • in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned
    • to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate
    • General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On
    • April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which
    • surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy
    • the next day.


    • At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en
    • route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington.
    • Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it.
    • First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.
  8. 634. Monitor and the Merrimac
    635. Lee, Jackson
    • First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two
    • ships battled in a portion of the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads
    • for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor -
    • Union. Merrimac - Confederacy. Historians use the name of the
    • original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was
    • constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship
    • was the CSS Virginia.

    • General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major
    • leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the
    • Civil War.
  9. 636. Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade
    637. Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
    Union generals in the Civil War.


    • Battle sites of the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade
    • vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg -
    • besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - turning
    • point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox -
    • Lee surrendered to Grant.
  10. 641.Copperheads
    • Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous
    • ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get
    • him.
  11. 649. Election of 1864: candidates, parties
    650. Financing of the war effort by North and South
    • Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212
    • electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln
    • had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)


    • The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through
    • loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South
    • had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes
    • without backing them with gold or silver.
  12. 652. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
    • Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of
    • their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the
    • 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because
    • Lincoln was assassinated.
  13. 659. Reconstruction Acts
  14. 1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical
    • Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the
    • South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute
    • power over his district.
  15. 670. Ku Klux Klan


    671. Civil Rights Act
    • White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after
    • the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends".
    • Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original
    • Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white
    • supremacists in 1915.


    1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
  16. 672. Thirteenth Amendment
    673. Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
    674. Fifteenth Amendment
    1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.

    • 1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full
    • citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including
    • former slaves and immigrants.


    • Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of
    • race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from
    • amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
  17. 679. Scalawags
    680. Carpetbaggers
    • A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy
    • up land from desperate Southerners.


    • A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the
    • Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own
    • fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by
    • manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
  18. 685. Monroe Doctrine
  19. 1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the
    • Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European
    • power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New
    • World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by
    • Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were
    • gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning,
    • supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the
    • doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
  20. 686. Ulysses S. Grant
    687. Treaty of Washington
    • U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a
    • corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although
    • Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was
    • considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.


    • 1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain.
    • Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
  21. 689. Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley
    690. Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
    691. Compromise of 1877 provisions
    • Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as
    • their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular
    • Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black
    • votes to gain victory for Grant.


    • Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received
    • only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received
    • 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral
    • votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral
    • commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.


    • Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end
    • Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent
    • election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
  22. 697. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
    • 1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a
    • federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania
    • indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The
    • Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone
    • but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus
    • weakening the fu
  23. 698. Dred Scott v. Sandford
    A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen
  24. 699. Ablemann v. Booth<br>
    1859
    700. Mississippi v. Johnson
    • - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for
    • assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by
    • the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act
    • was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It
    • upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the
    • supremacy of federal government over state government.


    Mississippi wanted the president to stop enforcing the Reconstruction Acts because they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court decided that the Acts were constitutional and the states must obey them.

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