Micro Ch 13

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Micro Ch 13
2012-10-29 00:09:05
microbiology okstate

Chapter 13 of the Okstate Microbiology Course
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  1. Catabolism
    the breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones
  2. Anabolism
    reactions that build cells
  3. Energy of activation
    lowered by enzymes, which allows the reaction to occur faster (but does not make the reaction more likely to occur)
  4. Entropy
    a measure of the disorder or randomness of a system
  5. Gibbs free energy change
    if this value is negative, the reaction will occur.
  6. Energy Carriers
    • molecules that gain or release small smounts of energy in reversible reactions
    • Ex. ATP, NADPH, NAD
  7. The oxidixing agent
    accepts electrons
  8. The reducing agent 
    donates electrons
  9. What is the net gain of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) Pathway?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
  10. The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway
    • most common form of glycolosis occuring in the cell's cytoplasm.
    • produces more energy than ED Pathway
    • Activation and energy yielding stage

    4 total ATP produced (net gain of 2) and 2 NADH
  11. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Activation Stage
    Activation Stage: Energy required (due to +G). Uses 2 ATP and fors 2 G3P (3 carbon sugars)
  12. Embdem-Meyerhof-Parnas Energy Yielding Stage
    • Engergy Yielding: NAD reduced, G3P oxidated into pyruvate.
    • 4 ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
  13. What is the net gain of the EMP pathway?
    2 NADH and 2 ATP
  14. Entner-Doudoroff Pathway (ED Pathway)
    • probably evolved first
    • occurs in large intestine, uses acidic sugars.
    • converts a 6 carbon sugar directly into pyruvate.
    • 1 ATP, 1 NADH, and 1 NADPH net gain
  15. Pentose Phosphate Shunt
    produces 1 ATP and 2 NADPH
  16. NADPH
    energy carrier for biosynthesis
  17. Fermentation
    • catablism WITHOUT the electron transport system
    • substrate level phosphorylation
  18. What happens if there is not enough NAD present?
    NADH can be regenerated for further use by reducing the pyruvate.
  19. Homolactic Fermentation
    • only occurs when NAD must be regnerated. Must occur in anaerobic environment.
    • produces 2 molecules of lactic acid
  20. Ethanolic fermtation 
    • only occurs when NAD must be regenerated.  Must occur in anaerobic environment.
    • Produces 2 molecules of ethanol and 2 CO2
  21. Heterolactic fermentation
    • Produces 1 molecule of lactic acid, 1 ethanol, and 1 CO2.
    • only occurs when NAD must be regenerated.  Must occur in anaerobic environment.
  22. Mixed-acid Fermentation
    • only occurs when NAD must be regenerated.  Must occur in anaerobic environment.
    • Produces acetate, formate, lactate, succinate, and ethanol, H2, CO2
  23. TCA Cycle
    • also known as Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle.
    • In prokaryotes, it occurs in cytoplasm.
    • In eukaryotes, it occurs in the mitochondria.
    • Breaks down pyruvate to acetyl-COA and CO2
  24. Krebs Cycle: 1 pyruvate equals?
    • 2 CO2 (from decarboxylation)
    • 3 NADH (to be sent to ETC and used in ox phos) and 1 FADH2 produced by redox reactions
    • 1 ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
  25. Oxidative phosphorylation
    • the process of electron transport and ATP generation
    • ATP synthase acts as a channel to allow protons through. The F1 portion blocks the channel and must be physically turned by the proton gradient.
  26. Why are substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation different?
    ETC in oxidative phosphorylation ONLY
  27. NADPH
    used in respiration