Piaget Cognitive Development

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Piaget Cognitive Development
2012-10-31 19:26:09
Piaget Cognitive Development Life Cycle Two

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
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  1. Stage 1
    • Use of reflexes
    • 0-1 month
    • Behavior innate, reflexive, specific, predictable to specific stimuli
  2. Stage 2
    • First acquired adaptations and primary circular reactions
    • 1-4 months
    • Initiates, prolongs, and repeats behavior not previously occuring
    • Acquires response to stimulus that creates another stimulus and response
    • Modifies innate reflexes
    • Learns feel of own body
  3. Stage 3
    • Secondary circular reactions
    • 4-8 months
    • Learns from unintentional behavior
    • Motor skills and vision further coordinated as infant learns to prolong or repeat
    • Interest in environment
    • Explores work from sitting position
    • Assimilates new objects into old behavior pattern
    • Behavior increasingly intentional
  4. Stage 4
    • Coordination of secondary schema acquisition of instrumental behavior, active search for vanished objects
    • Uses familiar behavior patterns in new situation to accomplish goal
    • Differentiates objects, including mother from stranger
    • Retains memory of object hidden from view
    • Combines actions to obtain desired, hidden object; explores object
    • Imitates others when behavior finished
    • Develops individual habits
    • Cognitive development enhanced by increasing motor and language skills
  5. Stage 5
    • Tertiary circular reactions and discovery of new means by active experimentation
    • 12-18 ¬†months
    • Invents new behavior not previously performed
    • Uses fewer previous behaviors
    • Explores variations or varies actions as repeats behavior
    • Uses trial-and-error
  6. Stage 6
    • Internal representation of action in external world
    • 18-24 months
    • Pictures events to self; follows through mentally to some degree
    • Uses deliberate trial-and-error
  7. Preoperational Period
    • 2-7 years
    • Internalizes schemata of more and more of the environment, rules, and relationships
    • Egocentric - focuses on single aspect of object and neglects other attributes because of lack of experience and reference systems, which results in false logic
    • Follows rules in egocentric way; rules external to self
    • Is static and irreversible in thinking; cannot transform from one state to another
    • Develops story or idea while forgetting original idea so that the final statements disconnected
    • Tries logical thinking; at times sounds logical but lacks perspective so that false logic and inconsistent, unorganized thinking result
    • Is magical, global, primitive in reasoning
    • Begins to connect past to present events
    • Links events by sequence rather than causality
    • Is anthropomorphic
    • Lacks reversibility in thinking, or multiple viewpoints
  8. Preconceptual Stage
    • 2-4 years
    • Forms images or preconcepts on basis of thinking
    • Lacks ability to define property or to denote hierarchy or relationships of objects
    • Constructs concepts in global way
    • Unable to use time, space, equivalence, and class inclusion in concept formation
  9. Intuitive stage
    • 4-7 years
    • Forms concepts increasingly; some limitations
    • Defines one property at a time
    • Has difficulty stating definition but knows how to use object
    • Uses transductive logic (general to specific) rather than deductive or inductive
    • Begins to classify in ascending or descending order
    • Begins to do seriation
    • Begins to note cause-effect relationships
  10. Concrete Operations Period
    • 7-11 years
    • Organizes and stabilizes thinking; more rational
    • See interrelationships increasingly
    • Does mental operations using tangible, visible references
    • Able to decenter
    • Recognizes number, length, volume, area, weight is the same even when perception of object changes
    • Develops conversation asa experience is gained with physical properties of objects
  11. Formal Operations Period
    • 12 years and beyond
    • Manifests adultlike thinking
    • Not limited by own perception or concrete references for ideas
    • Combines various ideas into concepts
    • Coordinates two or more reference systems
    • Develops morality or restraint and cooperation in behavior
    • Uses rules to structure interactions in socially acceptable way
    • Uses probability concept
    • Works from definition or concept only to solve problem
    • Solves problem mentally and considers alternatives before acting
    • Considers number of variables at one time and links them to formulate hypotheses
    • Begins to reason deductively and inductively
    • Relates concepts or constructs not readily evident in external world
    • Formulates advanced concepts or proportions, space destiny, momentum
    • Increases intellectual ability to include art, science, humanities, religion, philosophy
    • Is increasingly less egocentric