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Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
767. Munn v. Illinois
768. Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
769. Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
775. Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly
776. American Federation of Labor (AFL)
777. Samuel Gompers
778. Collective bargaining
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
782. Closed shop
783. Black list
784. Yellow Dog contracts
785. Company unions
786. Great Railroad Strike
787. Haymarket Square Riot
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25
- million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had
- come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came
- mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and
- poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust
- by Americans.
805. Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class.
- In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social
- welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile
- delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
807. Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further
- immigration of Chinese.
- Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to
- Chinese immagrants who
- would work for less pay.
817. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
818. Social Darwinism
- Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an
- ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give
- rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the
- issue of creation.
- Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the
- fittest" to human society -- the
- poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an
- argument against social reforms
- to help the poor.
838. Morril Act
840. Hatch Act
- 1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building
- 1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state
- to improve farming
1006. 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 -
- 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people.
- Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their
- states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of
- alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to
1008. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
1009. Anti-Saloon League
1010. Square Deal
- A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146
- people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the
- windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the
- poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect
- National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later
- joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.
- Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as
- president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
1014. Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
1015. Hepburn Act, 1906
1016. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
- This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential
- pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount
- paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This
- act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a
- dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and
- transporting them as if they were their own.
- It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the
- Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to
- set maximum rates.
- Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate
- Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the
- power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
1019. Meat Inspection Act
1021. Pure Food and Drug Act
- 1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government
- inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
- 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food
- or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and
- efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in
- existence as the FDA.
1023. Panic of 1907
1024. Election of 1908
Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers.
- Taft, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because of his support of
1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
1034. William Howard Taft
- Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace
- traditional political management of cities with trained professional
- urban planners and managers.
- 27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both
- President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
- Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House
- bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"
- Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in
- 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military
- intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.