spelling rules

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Author:
fssdpgsk-4
ID:
17990
Filename:
spelling rules
Updated:
2010-05-17 22:37:25
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spelling rules english pronunciation
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Description:
Spelling rules, definitions and facts. Ref. William Holmes McGuffey. Sounds: ô=lot;
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  1. How many letters in the English alphabet?
    26
  2. How many consonants are in the English alphabet?
    The traditional answer is 19 with Y sometimes being a consonant and sometimes being a vowel.

    However, early educators taught that W was a vowel when not at the beginning of a word, for example when used in the diphthongs OW, AW and EW. Dr. Webster took this one step further and considered W a vowel at all times, so WA would be considered a diphthong which made the sound like in the words want, water and waddle. The spelling rules in this card deck consider W to always be a vowel.
  3. How many vowels are in the English alphabet?
    The traditional answer is 5 with Y sometimes being a consonant and sometimes being a vowel.

    However, early educators taught that W was a vowel when not at the beginning of a word, for example when used in the diphthongs OW, AW and EW. Dr. Webster took this one step further and considered W a vowel at all times, so WA would be considered a diphthong which made the sound like in the words want, water and waddle. The spelling rules in this card deck consider W to always be a vowel.
  4. How many vowels must be in each syllable?
    At least one.
  5. What is a diphthong?
    Two vowels united together in one sound and act as one vowel. Therefore, it can be used to form a syllable.
  6. What is a triphthong?
    Three vowels united together in one sound and act as one vowel. Therefore, it can be used to form a syllable.
  7. What is a pure diphthong?
    A pure diphthong is one in which both sounds are united. Example: loud
  8. What is an impure diphthong?
    A diphthong in which only one of the two vowels is sounded. Example: sail
  9. How many diphthongs are there?
    19
  10. How many pure diphthongs are there?
    Four
  11. How many pure diphthongs are sometimes impure?
    Two
  12. What are the pure diphthongs and which ones are sometimes impure?
    OI, OY, OU & OW. However, OU and OW are sometimes impure.
  13. How many diphthongs start with the letter A?
    Five
  14. How many diphthongs start with the letter E?
    Six
  15. How many diphthongs start with the letter I?
    Two
  16. How many diphthongs start with the letter O?
    Six
  17. How many diphthongs start with the letter U?
    Three
  18. How many diphthongs start with the letter W?
    One
  19. What are the diphthongs that begin with A?
    AE, AI, AU, AW and AY
  20. What are the diphthongs that begin with E?
    EA, EI, EO, EU, EW and EY
  21. What are the diphthongs that begin with I?
    IA and IE
  22. What are the diphthongs that begin with O?
    OA, OE OI, OO, OU and OW
  23. What are the diphthongs that begin with U?
    UA, UE, UI
  24. What are the diphthongs that begin with W?
    WA
  25. What sound(s) can AE make?
    ē & ā

    Example: orthopaedics; aerospace

    A more common spelling of is orthopedics.
  26. What sound(s) can AI make?
    ā & ī

    Example: pain & aisle
  27. What sound(s) can AU make?
    a & ô

    Example: laugh & auto
  28. What sound(s) can AW make?
    ô

    Example: saw
  29. What sound(s) can AY make?
    ā

    Example: pay
  30. What sound(s) can EA make?
    ē, e & ā

    Examples: eat, bread, break
  31. What sound(s) can EI make?
    ē, ā, i, e & ī

    Example: ceiling, neighbor, foreign, heifer, eigenvalue

    Note: The e & ī sounds are rare.
  32. What sound(s) can EO make?
    ē

    Example: people
  33. What sound(s) can EU make?
    ū

    Example: euro
  34. What sound(s) can EW make?
    ū & ō

    Example: few, sew
  35. What sound(s) can EY make?
    ē & ā

    Example: key, they
  36. What sound(s) can IA make?
    ?

    Example: ?
  37. What sound(s) can IE make?
    ī

    Example: lie
  38. What sound(s) can OA make?
    ō

    Example: load
  39. What sound(s) can OE make?
    ō

    Example: oboe
  40. What sound(s) can OI make?
    oi

    Example: point
  41. What sound(s) can OO make?
    ōō & oo

    Example: cool, book
  42. What sound(s) can OU make?
    ou, ōō, ô & ō

    Example: loud, coupon, our & course

    Note: An example of an ou schwa sound is tough
  43. What sound(s) can OW make?
    ou & ō

    Example: cow & low
  44. What sound(s) can OY make?
    oi

    Example: boy
  45. What sound(s) can UA make?
    ?

    Example: ?

    • What sound(s) can UE make?
    • ōō

    Example: sue

    • What sound(s) can UI make?
    • ōō

    Example: sue

    Note: When preceeded by a Q, the QU are sounded together and act as a single conconant. Example: quit

    • What are the three ways to get the ending syllable shul sound?
    • tial, sial & cial

    • Examples: initial, controversial, facial
    • Notes:
    • - If tial is preceeded by an s then it makes the chul sound. Example: celestial.
    • - If the last syllable is preceeded by an i, then the sh sound is pronounced with the second to last syllable. Example: initial
  46. What are the four ways to get the ending syllable shus sound?
    tious, cious, scious & ceous

    Examples: cautious, precious, conscious & predaceous

    • Notes:
    • - If the last syllable is preceeded by an i, then the sh sound is pronounced with the second to last syllable. Example: nutritious, delicious
  47. What are the six ways to get the ending syllable shun sound?
    tion, sion, cion, tian, cian & cean

    Examples: adaption, mission, coercion, egyptian, politician & ocean

    • Notes:
    • - If the last syllable is preceeded by an i, then the sh sound is pronounced with the second to last syllable. Example: abolition, suspicion
    • - If sion is preceeded by a vowel it has the zhun sound. Example: fusion & concision. Notice that concision also has the zh sound pronounced with the second to last syllable.
    • - If tion or tian are preceeded by an s then they make the chun sound. Example: congestion &fustian
    • - cian is always preceeded by an i with an short i sound.
    • - There are very few words that end with cean, seven total. Two do not have the ending shun sound: lyncean & panacean, both have an adjective form.
  48. Can diphthons and triphthongs have a schwa sound?
    Yes

    Example: tough

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