Medical Nursing Week 9

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Gia_bella
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179904
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Medical Nursing Week 9
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2012-10-30 17:01:13
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Medical Nursing Week
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  1. Avian Medicine
    Anatomy
    • Feathers
    •     Primary or Flight
    •     Secondary gives aerodynamic
    •     Tail Feathers- rutter
    •         Uropygeal gland (preening gland)  Waterproofing tumor common
    •    Down or Plumule- insulation/ water proofing/ heating and cooling
  2. Avian Medicine
    Skin
    • Scales
    • Beak or bill Made of keratin
    •    Continual growth
    • Cere- nose
    •    Nasal Passages
    •    Salt gland in sea birds to be able to drink salt water
  3. Avian Medicine
    Bones
    • Pneumatic
    •    Hollow bones-air filled small amount of bone marrow
  4. Avian Medicine
    Respiratory system
    • 50-100 breaths/ minute
    • Air Sacs- could rupture
    •    primary air exchange
    • Lungs
    • Syrinx
    •    Voice
  5. Avian Medicine
    Heart
    • Heart has 3 chambers
    • 2 atrium
    • 1 ventricle
  6. Avian Medicine
    Digestive
    • Mouth
    •    Choana- culture should be gram +
    •      opening roof of mouth that connects to nasal passages
    •   Glottis- opening into trachea
    • Crop- pocket of the esophagus that stores food. Only in parrots and gallinaceous (water fowl/ ducks) species

    Crop burn-when a bird is fed food that is too hot

    • Proventriculus
    •    Normal stomach with acid secretion
    • Ventriculus (gizzard) breaks down food
    •    nonglandular stomach
    • Cloaca- pocket
    •    area of excrement for urine and feces and reproduction juices
    •    Urodeum- urine
    •    Proctodeum- reproduction juices
    •    Coprodeum- feces
    •    Vent (sphincter) - exit site
  7. Avian Medicine
    Reproduction
    • No exterior sex organs
    • Some birds sexually dimorphic Different colors
    • Many cannot sex without surgery of DNA sexing
  8. Avian Medicine
    Physical Exam
    • Inspect environment
    • Droppings
    •    White-uric acid
    •    Clear- urine
    •    Green- feces
    • (should be a clear distiction between all of them)
    • Bird behavior- should be perched
    • Type food
    • Type of cage and toys- Lead toxicity

    Type of cage and toys- lead toxicity
  9. Avian Medicine
    Restriant
    • Handle bird in enclosed room
    • Use towel or glove
    • Do not hold chest- breathing by active process

    • Cockatoo can live 20-60 years
    • Sexual Dimorphism Red - female
    •                                   Male- green
    • Males have blue or purpleish ceres.
  10. Avian Medicine
    Procedures
    • Oral Medication
    • Use speculum
    • Injections
    •   IM- most common
    •        Breast or flight muscle
    •       Lateral to Keel
    • SQ Under ventral part of wing
    • IV Ventral brachial vein
    • Intraosseous- in the bone
    • Jugular- Large amount of fluid
    • Venipuncture
    • Toe nail
    • medial tarsal vein
    • Ulner vein- in the wing
    • Right jugular- larger most common
    • Fluids
    •   IV - ilner vein or intraosseous
    • SQ- under wing or groin
  11. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Fethers and beak treatment
    • Feathers- wing feather trim
    •      Cut primary feathers to prevent flight
    •      Usually bilateral, some unilateral
    • Nail and beak trim
    •    to prevent breakage and hemorrhage
    •    to prevent with Dremel seander or nail trimmer
    •            Cauterize with Quickstop or Silver Nitrate Sticks
  12. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Blood Feathers
    • Immature Young Feathers
    • Pull complete feather and shaft
    •    Otherwise will continue to bleed
    • Pressure and cauterize as needed
    • Emergency due to blood loss
    •     Blood Volume = 10% body weight
  13. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Egg Bound
    • Emergency
    • Unknown cause of female birds
    • Occurs commonly in cocktails, budgies, love birds
  14. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Egg Bound
    Clinical Signs
    • ADR- Ain't doin Right
    • Fluffed feathers and perching at bottom of cage
    • Bot eating and depressed
    • Frequent wagging of tail
    • Abdominal swelling
  15. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Egg Bound
    Diagnosis
    • Radiographs- won't show up if it's soft shell
    • Palpation
  16. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Egg Bound
    Treatment
    • warm incubator at 85-90 degree (any sick Exotic)
    • Lubrication and digital manipulation
    • Intramuscular injections
    •     Calphosan- 0.15 to 0.25cc per 100g IM
    •      Calcium and Oxytocin- 0.025cc per 100g IM
    •    Injacom- 0.1cc per 300g IM
    • Fluid and antibiotics support if poor condition
    • Surgery as last resort
    •    Laparotomy
    •    Egg aspiration
  17. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Lead toxicity
    Etiology
    • Lead based cages, toys or paint
    • Lead shots- pellets
  18. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Lead toxicity
    Clinical Signs
    • Weakness
    • Vomiting and diarrhea
    • Ataxia, head tilt and convulsions
    • Hemorrhage in feces
  19. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Lead toxicity
    Diagnosis
    • Radiographs
    • Blood lead levels
  20. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Lead toxicity
    Treatment
    • gavage and toxiban
    • Fluid diuresis
    • Remove source
    • Chelating agents
    •    Calcium EDTA
  21. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
    Etiology
    • Chlamydia psittaci
    • Transmission
    •    Aerosolization
    •     Dried fecal material
    • Zoonotic
    • Contagious
  22. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
    Clinical Signs
    • ADR-adverse drug reactions
    • Diarrhea- green
    • Dyspnea
    • Hepatitis and Splenomegaly
  23. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacosis( Ornithosis)
    Diagnosis
    • Culture
    • ELISA
    • Tissue necropsy
  24. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psitticosis (Ornithosis)
    Treatment
    Tetracycline and fluid support

    Hepatisis- Liver
  25. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
    Etiology
    • Unknown
    • Suspect DNA virus
    • Primary cockatoos, but can effect any bird
    • Contagious through oral and respiratory
  26. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
    Clinical Signs
    • Malformed feathers and beak deformity
    • Feather picking
    • Bald with no feathers
    • Can lead to crop stasis, diarrhea and death
  27. Avian medicine
    Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
    Diagnosis
    • DNA Probe
    •    Blood
    • Feather follicle biopsy
  28. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
    Treatment
    Symptomatic, no treatment

    Remember naked could be from behavioral problems
  29. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Introduction
    • High contagious viral disease causing respiratory and neurological disease in all species of birds.
    •    Primary carrier are chickens and ducks (poultry industry)
    •    Can infect wild birds, raptors and parrots
    • Fatal disease that is controlled by eradication at state and federal levels.
    • Disease is important because it causes a huge economic loss for the poultry industry.
  30. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Etiology
    • Caused by paramyxovirus with 3 different strains of pathogenicity
    •        Lentogenic- produces few symptoms
    •       Mesogenic- young chickens causing respiratory and  neurological signs with high mortality
    •      Velogenic- most pathogenic and contagious strain, marked by respiratory signs and green diarrhea before acute death.
    • Incubation time averages 4-6 days from 2-20 day range
    •       Very hard virus that survives in the environment and in cold, but dies from dehydration or sunlight.
  31. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Transmission
    • Direct contact
    •    Feces
    •     Nasal and respiratory secretions
    •     Contaiminated food, water, human cloths, ect.
    •     Carcass of dead bird (eat dead bird)
    • Some pet birds have been known to shed virus up to 1 year
  32. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Clinical Signs
    • Respiratory
    •    Gasping, coughing, nasal and ocular discharge, sneezing
    • Neurological
    •    Dragging legs, torticollis, circling, depression, paralysis
    • Gastrointestinal
    •    Anorexia, green diarrhea
    •    Decreased egg production or thin shells
    • Swelling of head, neck, and eyes  Inflamed sinuses
  33. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Treatment
    • None- fatal disease
    • Euthanasia or cull
  34. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Diagnosis
    • Serology
    •       Haemagglutination inhibition test
    •       ELISA
    •       Blood Test
    • Virus Isolation
    •      Isolation of haemagglutination by ND virus- specific antiserum
    •     Choana, fecal, cloaca swabs from live birds or organ and feces from dead bird.
    • California test choanal and fecal swabs
    •       PCR test- most accurate
    •       If positive confirmation with virus Isolation 
  35. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Prevention
    • Destroy all infected birds and disinfect area
    •          Do not repopulate for 21 days
    • Quarantine all new birds for 30 days
    • Proper carcass disposal- burning
    • Vaccination if permitted by state
    •         Live vaccine
    •        Live B1 and LaSota strain administered to water
  36. Avian Medicine
    Diseases
    Exotic Newcastle Disease
    Zoonosis
    • Can cause conjunctivitis in people
    • Not to worry about spread to other species or from eating chickens or eggs

    Uropygial Gland
  37. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    General Information
    Diet
    • Carnivores
    • High protein and fatty diets
    • Cat food my work well, but now ferret diets are made
    • by Kaytee and Marshall
    • Nocturnal animals
    • Housing
    •    Cages
    •    Should be confined, because ferrets will burrow and cause damage to house.
  38. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    General Information
    Reproduction
    • Females (Jills)
    •   Sexually mature at 8-12 months
    •    Seasonally polyestrous (March to August)
    •    Induced ovulators- after intercourse they will get pregnant
    • Males( Hobs)
    •    Males larger than females
    • Gestation is 41 days
    • Litter size
    •    avg=8 (5-15)
    •  Life Span is 8-10 years
    •  
  39. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    General Information
    Physical Exam
    • Temperature= 96-103
    • Heart Rate = 260-600
    • Respiratory= 70-120

    same as cats
  40. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Vaccinations
    • Canine Distemper
    • Start 6-10 weeks, then 3-4 weeks later for booster
    • Then yearly
    • MLV
    • Rabies
    •   Killed only
    • Start 4-6 months, then yearly
    • Restrain by scruffing
  41. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Venipunctures
    • Venipunctures
    • Jugular and cephalic
    • IV catheter in cephalic vein
    • Ovarianhysterectomy and castration
    •    Performed at early age as 5-8 weeks
    • Descenting
    •    Analsacculectomy
    •        anal sacs- descending
    •        sebaceous skin glands
  42. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Otodectes Cyanotis
    • Ear mites
    • Treat like cats
    •    Ivermectin 0.2-0.4mg/kg SQ, then repeat 2 weeks later
    •     Tresaderm
  43. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Fleas
    • Control environment
    • Pyrethrins
    • Can use Program at cat dose or Advantage
  44. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Heartworm
    • Clinical Signs
    •    Lethargy, caughing, pulmonary congestion, ascites

    • Diagnosis
    • Radiographs
    •   Heartworm test- knotts test

    • Treatment
    • Preventive heartguard monthly
    •  Carparsolate for adulticide
  45. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Proliferative Bowel Disease
    • Clincal Signs
    • Wasting and anorexia
    • Hemorrageic diarrhea
    • Chronic diarrhea and vomiting
    • Casued by Camphylobacteria

    • Diagnosis
    •   No definitive test
    •    Radiographs and blood profile
    •    Fecal

    • Treatment
    •    Supportive
    • Chloramphenicol 50mg/kg PO BID  (must wear gloves)
  46. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Aleutian Mink Disease- Wheezles
    • Clinical Signs
    •   Chronic Wasting
    •   Black tarry feces- Melena
    •   Splenomegaly
    • Diagnosis
    •    Blood profile
    •   Hypergammaglobulinemia on protein
    •    Electrophoresis
    • Treatment
    •   None
    •   Symptomatic
  47. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Urolithiasis- Stones
    • acidic diet- Struvite urethral obstruction similar to cats
    •                   Treat as cats
  48. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Cainine Distemper- Respiratory
    • Clinical signs
    •   Anorexia, nasal discharge, salivation, seizures and CNS disease
    •   Fatal disease
  49. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Prolonged Estrus- should not see this
    • If Jills are not bred they will continue to secrete estrogen and stay inestrus causing estrogen toxicity and death.
    •   High estrogen levels cause bone marrow suppression
    • Clinical Signs
    •    Pale MM
    •    Melena
    •    Anorexia and depression
    •    Petechial hemorrhage
    •    Anemia and thrombocytopenia
    • Diagnosis
    • History not spayed
    • Blood Profile
    •    Anemia and thrombocytopenia
    • Treatment
    •    Ovarianhysterectomy
    •    Blood transfusion
    •    Anabolic sterioids
    •    fluid Support
  50. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Neoplasia
    • Lymphosarcoma
    • Insulinoma- Tumor of the pancreas
    •     Hypoglycemia
    •    Collapse
    •    Seizures
    •    Treatment
    •        Surgery- best
    •       Proglycem (Diazoxide)
    • Most common neoplasia
    • Oxyglobin- True Blood
  51. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Influenza- Zoonotic
    • Etiology
    • Human Influenza Virus
    • Transmitted from ferret to ferret or human to ferret
    • Clinical Signs
    • Sneezing and runny eyes
    • Upper respiratory infection
    • Fever
    • Treatment
    •  Symptomatic with antibiotics
  52. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies- Palpate
    • Hair Balls
    • Toys
    • Plastic
    • Treatment- Surgery
  53. Ferrets (Wheezles)
    Medical Concerns
    Diseases
    Cushings
    • Adrenal gland disease, Hyperadrenocorticism
    • Symptom
    • Hair Loss
  54. Rabbits
    General Information
    Physical
    • Temp=103 Temp Sensitive
    • HR= 100-300/min
    • Resp= 35-65/min
    • Diet
    • Timothy Hay
    •  Herbivore
    • Pelleted diets
    •     22.5% Fiber and 14-17% crude protein
    • Hay
    •   Lower in Fiber
    •    May reduce hair balls
    • Fresh vegetables
  55. Rabbits
    General Information
    Reproduction
    • Female- (Does)
    • Induced Ovulators
    • Year round breeding
    • Male (Buck)
    • Sexually dimorphic
    • Male have large head and dewlap
    • Gestation is 30-35 days
    • Litter size
    •  Average 7-8
    • Life Span 5-10 years
  56. Rabbits
    General Information
    Zoonotic Diseases
    • Rabies
    • Tularemia- Bacteria
    •   Francisella Tularenesis (bacteria)
    •   Plague like Symptoms- Fever
    • Tuberculosis
    • Ringworm
    • Use towel for restraint
    • Urine is brown
  57. Rabbits
    General Information
    Medications contraindicated for Rabbits
    • Penicillin antibiotics
    • Lincomycin
    • Erythromycin
    • Rabbit GI flora gram positive, so antobiotics destroy normal flors and cause diarrhea.
    •   Diarrhea kill rabbits
    •   Must give Yogurt to lactobacillus when giving antibiotics
  58. Rabbits
    Night Feces
    Early mornign fecessoft mucous feces (green) that rabbits eat directly from their anus. This gives them Vitamin B
  59. Rabbits
    Medical Concerns
    • Blood samples from marginal ear vein, jugular cephalic
    • Catheters
    • Ear vein
    • Femoral
    • Trim Nails
    • Teeth trimming
    •       Need to trim incisors to prevent malocclusions
    •       Incisors continually grow if not worn down
  60. Rabbits
    Diseases
    Overgrown incisors/ Malocclusions- can't eat
    • Incisors grow continually about 10cm per year
    • Overgrowth causes anorexia, weight loss and starvation
    • Treatment
    •   Clipping and filing teeth
    •   Split or abscessed teeth should be extracted
  61. Rabbits
    Diseases
    Posterior Paralysis- broken back
    • Due to powerful hindlegs, rabbits will over kick when restrained, playing or running. thus, secondary fracturing or luxating their lumber spine.
    • Diagnose with radiographs
    • Treatment: surgery or euthanasia
  62. Rabbits
    Diseases
    Snuffles(Pasteurella Multocida) Bacteria
    • Clincal Signs and Forms- upper Respiratory
    • Mucopurulent nasal discharge
    • Rhinitis and sneezing
    • Pneumonia
    • Head tilt and torticollis- twisting
    • Abcess
    • Skin
    • Otitis media and externa
    • Metritis- inflammation of mammary gland
    • Treatment
    • Antibiotics
    •   Chloramphenicol
    •    Baytril
    •   Tetracycline
    • Symptomatic care
    • Abscess surgical repair
    • Prognosis is guarded, never will go away and will return
  63. Rabbits
    Diseases
    Enteritis- Maggots
    • Signs
    •      Mucoid diarrhea
    •      Bloat
    •     Anorexia
    • Causes
    •     Nutritional
    •     Bacterial
    •            E-coli
    •           Bacillus piliformis
    •           Salmonella
    • Viral
    • Coccidia
    •        Diagnosis with fecal exam
    •       Treatment with Albon
    • Treatment
    •    Increase roughage- oat hay
    •    Pepto-bismol 0.8ml/kg PO TID
    •    Chloramphenicol palmitate
    •    Fluids if needed
  64. Rabbits
    Disease
    Trichobezoars- Hairballs
    • Signs
    •      Anorexia and weight loss
    •      Diarrhea and depression
    • Diagnosis
    •      PE
    •     Radiographs
    • Treatment
    •      Medical
    •          Mineral oil- 20ml PO
    •          Pinapple juice- 5-10 ml PO SID x 5 days
    •          Alfalfa hay
    •          Laxatone
    •    Surgery
    •      Gastrotomy- remove hair ball
  65. Guinea Pigs
    General Information
    • Rodents
    • diet
    •    Herbivores
    •    Pellets
    •    vitamin C Suplementation required
    •       Supplements
    •       Fresh vegetable as greens
    •            Cabbage
    •            Carrots
    • Physical
    • Temp= 99-103.1
    • HR= 230-300
    • Resp= 70-130/min
  66. Guinea Pigs
    Reproduction
    • Reproduction  
    • Gestation  59-72 days 
    • Litter size 3-4 average (1-6) 
    • Precocious    
    • Born with eyes open with teeth and hair  
    •   Start eating within 24 hoursLife span 6-8 years
  67. Guinea Pigs
    Medical concerns
    • Venipunctures
    •       Toe nail and jugular
    •       Catheter jugular and cephalic
    • Continually growing teeth- trim them
    • Do not give penicillin
    • Be careful because any injection can cause respiratory distress due to secondary anaphylaxis from histamine release.
    • Use towel for restraint
  68. Guinea pigs
    Diseases
    • Dermatophyte (ringworm)    
    •      Alopecia and scabs
    •      Treat with griseofulvin
    • Coccidia
    •    Diarrhea- fecal exam
    •    Treatment with Albon
  69. Guinea Pigs
    Disease
    • Scurvy (hypovitaminosis C)  
    • Mutated gene that cannot produce L-gulono-y-lactone oxidase, so cannot convert glucose to ascorbic acid
    • Signs
    •    Weakness and lethargy
    •    Poor hair coat
    •    Enlarged limb joints
    •    Nasal discharge
    •    Diarrhea
    • Diagnosis
    •     History and clinical signs
    •     Radiographs
    •     Serum ascorbic acid levels Vit C
    • Treatment
    •        Ascorbic acid (vit C)
    •                 50mg SQ
  70. Guinea disease
    Respiratory disease
    • Sneezing and ocular discharge
    • Dyspnea
    • Treatment
    •      Antibiotics
    •           Baytril
    •           Tertacycline
    •           Tribrissen
  71. Rats and mice
    General Info
    • Rodents
    • Diet
    •   Omnivores
    •    Seed diets
    •   Vegetable
    • Life Span
    •       Rats 2-3 years
    •       Mice 1-3 years
    • Medical concerns
    •       Venipunctures
    •       Tail veins
    •       IV catheters not used
  72. Rats and mice
    Diseases
    Respiratory disease
    • Signs
    •     Sneezing and ocular discharge
    •     Labored breathing
    •     Epistaxis
    • Treatment
    •      Antobiotics
    •           Tetracycline
    •           Baytril
    •  Many times do not do well
    • Cannot sometimed get rid of disease
  73. Reptile medicine
    • Anatomy
    •   Skin
    •     Scales
    •     Heal slower than skin when sutured
    •     4-6 weeks for healing and suture removal
    • Cardiovascular
    •    3 chamber heart
    •    Poikilothermic heart- cold blooded
    • Respiratory system
    • Lungs
  74. Reptile medicine
    • Digestive
    •      Linear duct from oral cavity to cloaca
    • Reproductive
    •     Internal sex organs
    • Physical exam and restraint
    •      Inspect environment and cage
    •             Many diseases  are nutritional and husbandry
    •    Diet
    •    Excretions
    •    Remember some reptiles will hibernate
    •           (pythons, desert tortises)
    • Restraint
    •   Gloves and towel Salmonella
    •    Hold tails in some species as Iguana and monitor Lizard
  75. Reptile Medicine
    Procedures
    • Procedures
    •      Oral medicine (usuallly liquid)
    •         Syringe feed or in water
    •        Not used much
  76. Reptile medicine
    Injections
    • Injections- must be given in Cranial 1/3 of the body 
    • Do not give injection in hindlegs or caudal area due to renal portal system        
    •     Nephrotoxicity
    • Intracoelomic (Ice)   
    •     Especially for large amounts of fluid or medication             
    •      Risk of injury to internal organs Puncture
    • SQ
    •      Frontlegs of turtles, lizards and iguanas
    •      Primary choice for turtles
    • IM
    •     Front legs and back muscle- longissismus
    •     Lizards and iguanas
    • IV
    •     Not used, except when IV catheter placed
  77. Reptile Medicine
    Venipuncture
    • Chelions (turtles)
    •       Right Jugular
    •       Toe Nail
    • Snakes
    •      Cardiocentesis- heart
    •      Caudal tail vein
    •     Palantine vein- palate
    • Lizards and Iguanas
    •     Caudal Tail vein
  78. Reptile Medicine
    Intravenous fluids
    • Chelions
    •       Catheters placed in right jugular
    •       Sq fluids in arm webs of fornot legs
    • Lizards and Iguanas
    •       Catheters placed cephalic vein
    •       Introsseous
    •       SQ Fluids on back
    •       Intracoelemic Fluids
    • Snakes
    •     Catheters placed in right jugular vein
    •     Intracoelemic fluids
  79. Reptile medicine
    diseases
    Hypocalcemia
    • Etiology
    •      Poor nutrition
    •      Single food source as meat or meal worms and     vegetation
    •      Seen especially in Iguana
    • Clinical Signs
    •       Weak thin and emaciated
    •       Bone deformities and fractures
    •       Soft Shells
    • Diagnosis
    •      Radiographs
    •     Blood profile
    •     History and physical exam
    • Treatment
    •      Treat problems
    •     dietary management
    •     Calcium supplements or crickets
    •    Neocalglucon
  80. Reptile medicine
    Vitamin Deficiency
    • Primarily in Turtles
    • Caused by vitamin deficiency poor diet
    • Symptoms
    •       Swollen eyelids- discharge
    •      Loss of appetite
    • Treatment
    •        cod liver oil and green vegetables
    •       Injacom (vit A and D)
  81. Reptile medicine
    Mouth Rot in snakes
    • Secondary bacterial infection from injury, nutrition, poor husbandry
    • Symptoms
    •      Swollen mouth and redness
    •      Pus discharge
    •      Oral deformality
    •      Loss of appetite and weight loss
    •      Death
    • Treatment
    •      Surgical debridement
    •     Antibiotics
    •         Baytril
    •         Chloramphenicol
    • Topical treatment
    •       Flush and clean betadine
    •     BNP or antibiotic ointment
    • Nutritional support
    • caseous /ca·se·ous/ (ka´se-us) resembling cheese or curd;
  82. Reptile Medicine
    Bacterial Pnuemonia
    • Causes are bacteria from poor husbandry
    • Symptoms
    •       Nasal Discharge
    •       Dyspnea
    •       Open  mouth breathing raising up
    • Diagnosis
    •      Tracheal wash and cultures
    • Treatment antibiotics 
    •     Antibiotics
    •     Nutritional Support
  83. Reptile medicine
    Salmonellosis
    • Caused by bacteria Salmonella
    • Zoonotic
    • Causes enteritis and respiratory disease
    • Treament with antibiotics
  84. Reptile medicine
    Cloaca Prolapse- Prolapse Anus
    • Caused by diarrhea infection, dietary, parasites, egg bound
    • Treat cause
    • Surgery
    •    Purse string suture
  85. Reptile Medicine
    Egg Bound
    • Emergency
    • Caused by dystocia
    • Seen in snakes and Iguanas and Turtles
    • Treatment
    •    Medical
    •      Oxytocin
    •      Digital manipulation
    • Surgery
    •    Needle aspiration
    •       Then allow to pass shell on own
    •      Salpingotomy
  86. Salpingostomy
    salpingostomy /sal·pin·gos·to·my/ (sal″ping-gos´tah-me) 1. formation of an opening or fistula into a uterine tube.2. surgical restoration of the patency of a uterine tube.

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