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(hormones and behavior) Organizational effects
-hormones are directly responsible for determining which sex organs we will have
(hormones and behavior) Activational affects
-hormones play an important role on sexual behavior
6 things hormones plays a part of...
- -determining which sex organs we will have
- -important role in sexual behavior
- -play importan role in pregnancy, child birth, maternal behavior, and lactation
- -important role in pair-bonding
- -critically involved in stress and arousal
- -play a vital role in feeding and drinking behavior
Neuroendocrine system function
-interaction between neurons, glands, hormones and their receptors on organs including the brain
organs whose primary function is to release hormones
(neurodocrine system) Other systems that are not considered glands but release hormones (3)
*it is not their primary function
Hormones similarities with NTs (2)
- -reach target organs where they interact with receptors
- *causes series of event to occur within cell
- SOME are packaged into vesicles and are released by neurons as a result of action potentials
Differences hormones have from NTs (2)
- -they are meant to travel very long distances
- *blood stream
-hormones are in the circulation for a much longer time period and have a slower offset of function
3 types of hormones
-amino acid derived
-peptide and protein hormones
(types of hormones) Amino acid derived description (2)
-amino-acids are the building blocks of proteins
-synthesized in just a few steps
What gland is epinephrine released?
Amino acid Tyrosine is used to make...
NT: norepinephrine and dopamine
(types of hormones) Peptide and protein hormones
-small and long chains of amino acids (respectively)
(types of hormones) Steroid hormones
-synthesized from the fat molecule cholesterol.
-plays a significant role in sexual differentation and sexual behavior.
*because they derived from lipids they can cross the cell membrane and interact with everything inside
Pituatary gland (3)
-referred as master gland
-releases tropic hormones
whose purpose is to cause the release of hormones from other glands and organs
- *made up of 2 glads that fuse during development
- **anterior pituatry and posterior pituatary
(pituatary gland) Anterior pituatary
-develops from same embryonic tissue as the roof of your mouth
-while development occurs, this tissue "pinches" off and moves upward next to the posterior pituatary
(pituatary gland) Posterior pituatary quick description
-develops from a small outgrowth of the hypothalamus (region of diencephalon) "dangles" down from the hypothalamus by a stalk
(posterior galnd) Neurons with cell bodies in regions of the hypothalamus send their axons down into...
- posterior gland
- *paraventricular nucleus
- *supraoptic nucleus
(posterior pituatary gland) Peptide hormones
*are packaged into vesicles and transported to axon terminals in posterior pituatary gland
Hormones are released as a result of...
In the posterior pituatary, axon terminals...
containing oxytocin and vasopressin are release directly into blood stream
*these cells are calleds nuerosecretery
Oxytocin is involved with which three aspects?
-responsible for milk "letdown"
(responsible-oxytocin) 3 Social behaviors oxytocin is involved with...
-maybe even everyday social behavior and the concept of trust
(responsible-oxytocin) Uterine contractions
- -it can induce labor, a synthetic oxytocin is given
- **might be a circumstance in which it is needed to induce labor
(responsible-oxytocin) Responsible for milk "letdown"
--feeding their young wiht milk
delivering milk oxytocin
- -oxytocin contracts the smooth muscle layer surrounding the alveoli to squeeze the newly-produced milk into the duct system
- *necessary for a let-down, milk ejection relflex to occur
Oxytocin is not just released as a result of an infant suckling... (4)
- oxytocin can be released by cues
- *sound of the baby crying
- *time of day, certain time which they are accustomed on releaseing
- *sitting at work daydreaming of the baby
suckling alone can cause activiation of areas of the brain involved in oxytocin release
- -study rodents
- -mothers crouch over their litter to nurse
- -done in a "nest"
- -if pups are dispersed from the nest, mother will retrive the pups by picking them up wth her mouth and carryingt hem back
Pup retrieval test -scientists can monitor these different behaviors (3)
-time spend crouching to nurse
-time it takes to retrieve pups after dispersal
-how many pups are retrieved
*new mothers will retrieve pups from different mothers
this study illustrates that an area that makes oxytocin s important for maternal behavior
Problem: it does not show that oxytocin itself is involved
study illustrates that "good" mothers ahve many oxytocin receptors in certain regions of the brain while bad mothers have fewer
results: females with larger numebr of oxytocin might make better mothers
*same study but this time it blocks oxytocin receptors
-once the drug wears off "good" mothers return to their regular duties
Oxytocin and social bonding
- -oxytocin is released in both males and females during orgasm
- *oxytocin is important for pair bonding
(social bonding) Characteristics of prairie voles
- *it takes one bout of copulation or
- * cohabition of 24 hrs
(social bonding) Characteristics of Montane voles
- *wont stay faithful no matter how much copulation they have
-in prarie voles, the formation of pair-bonded depends on oxytocin
- -in this experiment oxytocin anatagonists prevented formation of pairbond even after 24 hrs of cohabition or copulation
- *once given oxytocin the pair bonded
Montane voles have less...
oxytocin receptors than prarie, thus making them promiscuous
-in this experiment, montane voles produce oxytocin receptors in key areas of the brain just after giving birth
-other posterior hormone
-it has effects on physiology
- -acts on kidneys to conserve water, concentrate urine and increase blood pressure
- *also known as anti-diuretic hormone
(vasopressin) Ethanol will...
- block the release of both vasopressin and oxytocin
- *during heaving night of dirnking there will be many trips to the bathroom
- * a shot of whiskey is a remedy for early labor
Vasopressin also has effects on behavior...
-it plays a critical role in paternal behavior
-injection of vasopressin to non-monogamous males decreases their aggression towards their pups and increased their paternal behavior
People that receive a nasal spray of oxytocin...
gave more money to the trustee, thus showed more trust because of the oxytocin