nutrition 120

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Anonymous
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nutrition 120
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2012-10-25 22:52:33
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carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates
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  1. Whole Grain
    The entire kernel of grain. Including the bran layers, germ and endosperm
  2. Bran
    • -the protective outer layers of whole grains.
    • -concentrated source of dietary fibre
  3. Germ
    • -embryo or sprouting portion of grain kernel
    • -contains vegetable oil, protein, fibre and vitamins
  4. Endosperm
    • -largest portion of grain kernel
    • -primarily starch
  5. Fortified/Enriched Grains
    • -grains to which specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron have been added
    • -folic acid added since 1998
  6. Glucose
    • -monoS
    • -primary form of CHO in body
    • -reffered to as blood sugar
  7. Galactose
    • -monoS 
    • -combines with glucose to form lactose
  8. Fructose
    • -monoS
    • -primary form of CHO found in fruit and honey
    • -high fructose corn syrup approx 55% fructose
    • --liquid sweetner
    • --in 1970 intake was trace, now 1/3 of all sugar 
    • --average american consumes 62 pounds per year
    • --body uses fructose differently, does not stimulate insulin secretion or affect appetite 
    • --stimulates liver fat synthesis (VLDL)
  9. Sucrose
    • -diS
    • -formed by linking fructose with glucose
    • -commonly known as white sugar
  10. Lactose
    • -diS
    • -commonly known as milk sugar
    • -linking galactose and glucose
  11. Maltose
    • -diS made of 2 molecules of glucose
    • -formed in the intestines during starch digestion
  12. Oligosaccharides
    • -short chains of 3-10 monoS
    • -found naturally in beans, legumes, onions, bananas, garlic and artichokes
    • -broken down by intestinal microflora ->promote GI health
    • -known as prebiotics
  13. Glycogen
    • -CHO made up of many glucose molecules linked in highly branched structure
    • -storage form of CHO in animals
    • -stored as muscle and liver glycogen
    • -muscle glycogen for use in activity, liver glycogen for release into bloodstream as needed
    • -small amount stored in body 200-500 grams
  14. Starch
    • -storage form of CHO in plants
    • -made up of amylose(long straight chains of glucose molecules) and amylopectin(branched chains of glucose molecules)
  15. Soluble Fibre
    • -can be broken down by bacteria in colon, produces gas and short chain fatty acids (2:0 acetate, 3:0 propionate, 4:0 butyrate)
    • -Propionate shown to decrease liver cholesterol synthesis
    • -Butyrate is the preffered energy source of colon cells
    • -lowers pH of colon (fermentation)
    • -lowers NH3 (ammonia) through fermentation
    • -stimulates microbial cell growth
  16. Insoluble Fibre
    • -cellulose, hemicellulose and lignins 
    • -fruit skins and bean skins
    • -totally indigestible, acts like a pipe cleaner for the tubes of your GI tract
    • -adds bulk to fecal matter which dilutes colon contents
    • -reduces transit time
    • -reduces conversion of bile acids to secondary bile acids(thought to be cancer promoter)
  17. Total Fibre
    • -recommend 14grams/1000 Kcalories
    • -we dont get enough currently around 12-15 grams per day
    • -increases satiety
    • -delays gastric emptying
  18. Lactose Intolerance
    • -condition where not enough lactase is produced
    • -lactose passes into colon where it is digested by bacteria
    • -flatulence
    • -abdominal distension
    • -cramping
    • -diarrhea
    • -must get calcium from somewhere else (tofu, fish and some vegetables)
  19. Glycolysis
    • -anaerobic metabolism
    • -takes place in cytoplasm of cell
    • -first stage of cellular respiration
    • -means glucose breakdown
    • -6 carbon sugar (glucose) is broken down into two 3 carbon molecules called pyruvate
    • -generates two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
  20. Acetyl CoA Formation
    • -aerobic metabolism
    • -happens in mitochondria
    • -one carbon is released from pyruvate and released as CO2
    • -remaining 2 carbon molecule bonds with coenzyme A to form acetyl coA
    • -second stage of cellular respiration
  21. Citric Acid Cycle
    • -third stage of cellular respiration
    • -acetyl coA combines with oxaloacetate(4 carbon molecule derived from CHO) forms 6 carbon molecule called citric acid
    • -citric acid cycle removes 2 carbon (one at a time, giving off CO2 each time) then the molecule is oxaloacetate again and it starts over
    • -produce two ATP molecules per glucose molecule 
  22. Electron Transport Chain
    • -4th stage of cellular respiration
    • -occurs in inner folds of mitochondria
    • -electrons are shuttled down molecules until they finally combine with oxygen to form water
    • -ATP is trapped as the electrons transfer capturing 30 ATP per glucose molecule
    • -total 38 ATP produced during cellular respiration
  23. Hypoglycemia
    • -condition in which blood-glucose levels drop below the normal range
    • -diabetic reaction
  24. Glycemic Response/Glycemic Index/Glycemic Load
    • -the rate, magnitude and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a particular food is consumed
    • -glucose has a glycemic index score of 100
    • -index of greater than 70 is high
    • -index of lower than 55 is low
    • -glycemic load accounts for how much you eat 20 is high 11 is low
  25. Insulin
    • -secreted from pancreatic beta cells
    • -in muscle it stimulates the use of glucose and the synthesis of muscle glycogen for energy storage
  26. Glucagon
    • -created by Alpha cells in pancreas
    • -created when not eaten for a few hours
    • -signals liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release it into bloodstream
  27. Type 1 diabetes
    • -autoimmune disease
    • -5-10% of all cases
    • -no insulin production
    • -requires insulin injections
  28. Type 2 Diabetes
    • -95% of cases
    • -develops from pre-diabetes or insulin resistance
    • -combination of genetic and lifestyle factors
    • -linked to family history of diabetes, overweight, obese, sedentary lifestyle and abdominal adipose tissue
    • -treatment through lifestyle and diet changes paired with meds, usually pills
  29. Gestational Diabetes
    • -women during pregnancy
    • -generally goes away once baby is born
    • -increases risk for type 2 diabetes
  30. Symptoms of Diabetes
    • IMMEDIATE
    • -excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, sudden weight loss
    • LONG TERM
    • -damage to heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves caused by exposure to high levels of glucose

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