neuro 2 Parkinsons to end.txt

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neuro 2 Parkinsons to end.txt
2012-10-25 20:04:43
neuro Parkinson

neuro - Parkinson's to end of outline
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  1. Parkinson's disease
    • neurodegenerative disease affecting muscle control and coordination
    • develops gradually - barely noticeable tremor in one hand
    • tremor is prominent feature, however disorder also causes a slowing or freezing of movement
    • due to loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
    • occurs around age 45 and affects men more than women
  2. Cause of Parkinson's disease
    unknown but may include environmental factors or heredity
  3. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
    • tremor
    • rigidity
  4. Treatment of Parkinson's disease
    • dopaminergic medications - Levadopamine (L-dopa)
    • dopamine agonists - Pramipexole or ropinirole
    • monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors - Selegiline or rasagiline
    • anticholinergics (muscarinic receptor antagonists) - Benzotropine or trihexyphenidyl
    • benzotropine or trihexyphenidyl
  5. Levadomaine (L-dopa) in Parkinson's
    • dopaminergic
    • effective, naturally occurring substance found in body
    • converted in the brain to dopamine
    • given with carbidopa to protect levodopa from premature conversion to dopamine outside the brain and to minimize nausea
    • becomes less effective, tendency of disease to wax and wane
    • side effects include dyskinesia and orthostatic hypotension
  6. Pramipexole or ropinirole
    • dopamine agonists
    • activates dopamine receptors
    • side effects include hallucinations, orthostatic hypotension, hypersomnia, increased compulsive behaviors and water retention
  7. Selegiline or rasagiline
    • monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (MAO-B)
    • prevent breakdown of naturally occurring dopamine and dopamine coverted from L-dopa
    • side effects include confusion, headache, hallucination, dizziness, hypertensive crisis
  8. Benzotropine or trihexyphenidyl
    • anticholingergics (muscarinic receptor antagonists)
    • used to control tremore associated with Parkinson's disease
    • side effects include impaired memory, confusion, constipation, dry mouth and eyes and impaired urination
  9. Essential tremor
    • involuntary shaking movement
    • small, rapid movements - more than 5/sec affecting hands, arms, head, eyelids or other muscle
    • confused with Parkinson's
  10. Causes of essential tremor
    • cerebellar damage
    • age-related
    • neurological disorders
    • heredity
  11. Treatment of essential tremor
    • beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists
    • anxiolytics
    • botulinum toxin type A injections (Botox)
    • anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications
  12. Huntington's disease (chorea)
    • progressive neurodegenerative disease causing dementia and abnormal muscle activity
    • autosomal dominant hereditary trait caused by a defect on chromosome 4 that leads to excess dopamine production, acetylcholine insufficiency and loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid (inhibitor neurotransmitter)
  13. Physical disabilities with Huntington's disease
    • speech loss
    • difficulty in swallowing
    • involuntary jerky movements
    • twisting motions
    • muscle spasms
  14. Personality changes in Huntington's disease
    • carelessness
    • poor judgment
    • impaired memory
    • mental incompentence
  15. Treatment of Huntington's disease
    • dopamine receptor antagonists - Haloperidol or phenothiazine
    • side effects include lethargy, parkinsonism (dose increase until intolerable or undesierable adverse effects occur)