neuro 2 tetanus alzheimers.txt

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neuro 2 tetanus alzheimers.txt
2012-10-25 20:05:27
neuro tetanus Alzheimer

neuro 2 - tetanus and Alzheimer's
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  1. Tetanus
    • acute infection of the nervous system caused by the potentially deadly bacillus bacteria Clostridum tetani
    • C. tetani enters deep tissue and flourishes due to reduced oxygen levels
    • incubation 1-2 weeks
  2. Tetanus toxin causes
    spasms or rigid, contracted muscles of jaw (lockjaw) affecting breathing; swallowing; chest, neck, back and abdominal muscles
  3. Tetany
    prolonged rapid, powerful and painful muscle contractions which may lead to fractures and muscle tears
  4. Prevention of tetanus
    active immunization with tetanus toxoid every 10 years
  5. Treatment of tetanus
    • antibiotics
    • sedative-hypnotics
    • hyperbaric oxygen
  6. Brain abscess
    • occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain
    • swelling and inflammation enveloped by membrane creating a mass of infected brain cells, white blood cells, live and dead bacteria and fungi
  7. Sources of infection for brain abscess
    • often not found
    • if source is found, most commonly lung infection
    • other sources could be middle ear infection, sinus infection or endocarditis
  8. Symptoms of brain abscess
    • headache
    • fever
    • vomiting
    • lethargy
    • seizures
    • personality changes
  9. Diagnosis of brain abscess
    • MRI and CT scan
    • lumbar puncture spinal tap to examine for increased crainial pressure or increased neutrophils and lymphocytes
  10. Treatment of brain abscess
    • antibiotics
    • surgical drainage
    • supportive therapy
  11. Alzheimer's disease
    • progressive degenerative disease
    • incidence increases with age while prevalence or risk doubles every 5 years
    • has a familial or genetic component
  12. Course of Alzheimer's disease
    • loss of mental capacity
    • loss of ability to perform daily activities
    • becomes disabled and immobilized
    • usually succumbs to pneumonia
  13. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
    • no single test available
    • other causes of symptoms need to be excluded
    • confirmed at autopsy
  14. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease
    • cholinesterase inhibitors
    • NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) glutamate receptor antagonist
    • anxiolytics
    • sedative-hypnotics
    • neuroleptics (antipsychotics)
    • drugs only slow progression and do not cure disease, but may improve a patient's daily function and quality of life