Social Psychology Test 2

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Social Psychology Test 2
2012-10-25 20:47:43
social psych attitudes cognitive dissonance westmont saad psychology

test 2 oct 26 2012
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  1. Correspondence Bias
    tendency to infer people's behavior corresponds to their personality
  2. Self-Serving Attributions
    • Failures we credit to situation factors
    • Successes we credit to our personality
  3. Self Conscious Emotions
    emotions relating to ourselves and our consciousness of others' reactions towards us 
  4. Self-Concept
    our knowledge about who we are 
  5. Duality of the Self:
    • William James. 
    • Me: self that is observable (property X)
    • I: the one that observes (thinking about feelings, actions, etc.)
  6. Self-Awareness
    the act of thinking about one's self
  7. Introspection
    looking inward and examining your own thoughts, feelings, or motives
  8. Self-Perception Theory
    We our attitudes/feelings are ambiguous, we infer how we feel by observing our actions and the situation around them
  9. Self-Control
    self-control is a limited resource best resupplied by glucose and sleep 
  10. Impression Management
    the attempt by people to get others to see them as the way they want to be seen
  11. Self Enhancement
    we want people to think good things about us
  12. Self-reference effect
    we better remember things relating to ourselves 
  13. Cultural Influences on the self concept 
    • Western: Individualist
    • Eastern: collectivistic
  14. Over justification effect
    people view their behaviors as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons (rewards) making them underestimate how much it was caused by intrinsic reasons 
  15. Social Tuning
    we pick up behaviors of people we are closest to, which demonstrates our lack of control over unconscious actions
  16. Social Comparison Theory
    the idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people 
  17. Stereotype threat
    experiencing anxiety when you are trying to disprove a negative stereotype about yourself
  18.  Self-verification theory
    we want people to think about us the way we think about ourselves
  19. Self Handicapping
    people create obstacles/excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task they have somethign to blame
  20. Cognitive Dissonance
    a drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action discrepant from one's customary self-conception
  21. Festinger and Carlsmith
    1 dollar 20 dolar
  22. Foot in the Door
    ask for something small then ask for something big
  23. Door in the face
    start with large request (not too large) and then ask for smaller
  24. Low Ball
    quote small price and then sell addons or change the price
  25. Internal Justification
    the reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (either attitude or behavior)
  26. External Justification
    a reason or explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual
  27. Reducing cognitive dissonance
    • change your attitude
    • change your perception
    • add constant cognitions
    • minimize importance of conflict
    • reduce perceived choice
  28. The Seeks and Mrs. Keech
    cult group that believed in interplanetary communications and that the world would perish on Dec 21.  Leader told them to isolate themselves and pray for salvation. When the world didn’t end common sense would say convictions would be weakened but they believed that their prayers saved the world and their convictions were strengthened
  29. Heaven's Gate cult
    the more they gave up and the harder they worked, the greater need to convince oneself that our views are correct
  30. Effort Justification
    increase liking for something you work hard to attain
  31. Justifying decisions
    • exaggerate positve of choice and exaggerate negative of not choice 
    • if you do someone a favor you like them more
  32. Belief in a Just World
    we want to believe the world is fair so we think people deserve what they get 
  33. System Justification Theory
    people have a motivation to defend and bolster their status quo, to see it as good, legitimate, and desirable (both them, their social groups, and overarching social systems) 
  34. Components of atittudes
    • affect (how you felt about it) 
    • cognitiosn (what you think)
    • BBehavior (how you act)
  35. Functions of attitudes
    they provide valenced summaries of one’s environment that serve to direct approach/avoidance responding, valence: emotional component positive or negative
  36. Relationship between attitudes and behavior
    attitudes may predict
  37. Theory of planned behavior
    attitudes predict behavior when they are about behavior, but subjective norms (friends/family/peers) and perceived behavioral control (if people believe they can do it with ease they are more likely to have intent to do it) also are determinants 
  38. Low vs high monitors
    • low: dont change attitude around different people/situations
    • high: change attitude around different people/situations